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force was hotly engaged at a great disadvantage, owing to the abundant cover which screened the enemy. Twice during this period, the mutineers, seeing the guns left almost wholly without support, (Captain L. Estrange's small body of infantry being occupied in skirmishing,) rushed impetuously upon them : and were driven back on both occasions by showers of grape. At this juncture the Honourable Captain Hastings brought word to Major Eyre that the 5th Fusiliers were losing ground, and that our position had become most critical. Major Eyre hereupon resolved on trying what a charge of bayonets would effect; and despatched Captain Hastings with an order to Captain L'Estrange to that effect. Unable immediately to find Captain L'Estrange, Captain Hastings at once most gallantly collected every available man, and himself led them on ; Captain L'Estrange promptly joining, on learning the order which had been given. Rushing forward with a cheer they cleared the deep stream, now confined within narrow banks, at a bound; and charged impetuously an enemy twenty times their number. Taken completely by surprise, the mutineers fell back in the utmost disorder, the guns opening fire upon their retreating masses; and in a few minutes, not a man of them remained to oppose the passage of the force. Thenceforward an open road was available, which skirted the railway to within four miles of Arrah, where a little before nightfall the force was compelled to halt by a rapid impassable stream. The night was employed in endeavours to bridge this, by casting in the large piles of bricks that had been collected on the bank by the railway engineers; by which means the stream was narrowed sufficiently to allow the construction of a small bridge formed of country carts, over which the guns and baggage crossed in safety. And at an early hour on the morning of the 3rd of August, the force marched, without further opposition, into the civil station of Arrah; and the relief of the beleaguered garrison was accomplished. It would appear that after their defeat at the railway, the mutineers and Kowursingh had fled back with precipitation to Arrah; to remove their valuables, to the jungle stronghold of that chief at Jugdeespoor. The relief of the garrison proved to have been most opportune; for their position had been so effectually mined, that a few hours' delay must have ensured their destruction. They numbered sixteen European civilians, and fifty of Rattray's Seikh Police. The position which they had so miraculously defended, against the three mutineer regiments aided by Kowursingh's levies, was a small upper-roomed house of substantial masonry, belonging to Mr. Boyle, District Railway Engineer, by whose skill and foresight it had been fortified and provisioned several days previous to the Dinapoor outbreak, in anticipation of some such crisis. But the strongest position is but of little avail, where stout hearts and an efficient leader are wanting to defend it. And in the present case such hearts and such a leader were forthcoming. To Mr. Wake, Civil Magistrate of Arrah, who possesses in a rare degree some of the highest qualities of a soldier, no less than to the unflinching fortitude with which his able efforts were supported by his brave associates, may be attributed the salvation of the garrison from the worst of fates. During eight days and nights, the garrison was incessantly harassed; and so closely watched, that not a loophole could be approached with safety. At one period their water failed; and they owed their supply to the prompt energy of the Seikhs, who in one night contrived with most inefficient tools to dig a well on the ground floor, twenty feet deep, whereby abundance of good water was obtained. During the last three or four days their position had been rendered doubly perilous, by the fire of three or four guns of small calibre, which the enemy had mounted within fifty yards of the house; the walls of which were perforated by their balls in all directions. Fortunately, the garrison possessed some excellent rifle shots, among whom was Mr. Iittledale, the Judge, whose unerring aim had at an early day established a salutary dread; causing the enemy to conceal themselves behind every available cover. Not less than fifty or sixty of the enemy are believed to have been killed by the garrison. Yet strange to say, only two of the latter had been wounded ! The defence of Arrah may be considered one of the most remarkable feats in Indian history. The main object of the expedition from Buxar had now been accomplished. But it seemed desirable to follow up the success that had been obtained, by attacking Jugdeespoor, whither the rebel Kowursingh, with the mutineers who still adhered to him, had fled; and which was generally considered to be a dangerous, if not desperate undertaking. Major Eyre, therefore, lost no time in applying to the military authorities at Dinapoor, for such reinforcements as could be spared. Meanwhile, he employed himself in restoring the country about Arrah to order. Martial law was proclaimed. The people were disarmed; plundered property recovered; and political offenders brought to trial by drum-head court-martial. About thirty wounded sepoys were brought in and hanged. Several native officials who had accepted service under Kowursingh were similarly dealt with. Among others the chief magistrate whom he had appointed to the district. Inquiries were instituted as to the extent of the recent disaffection ; and it was ascertained that on hearing of the approach of the Buxar force, Kowursingh had summoned to his standard by beat of tom-tom in every village, not only the sepoys then on leave from various regiments, but also the pensioned sepoys of Government, of whom several hundreds obeyed the call! Among the slain in the engagement at the railway on the 2nd of August, there were found the appointments and distinguishing numbers of nine different regiments. And the total number of sepoys opposed to the force in that engagement may be safely estimated at 5000. On the 8th of August, a reinforcement of 200 men of H.M.'s 10th Foot, under command of Captain C. D. Patterson, arrived at Arrah from Dinapoor. They had exchanged their old muskets for new Enfield rifles only just before starting, and had not yet been instructed in the use of their new weapons. Drill-instructors were therefore furnished to them from the 5th Fusilier detachment, in order to give them confidence in the use of the rifle. On the 9th of August, a further reinforcement of 100 of Rattray's Seikhs, under Lieutenant Roberts, of the 40th N.I., and Lieutenant Powis, joined the force. Lieutenant Jackson's body of Volunteer Cavalry was strengthened by eight of the Arrah garrison. Mr. Wake was appointed commandant of the fifty Seikhs, who had already served under him so well; and on the 11th, the force commenced its march at 2, P.M. for Jugdeespoor. Passing over their old battle-field near Beebeegunje, where the marks of the bullets upon the trees sufficiently evidenced the fierceness of the conflict, a march of eight miles brought them to an open plain, where they bivouacked for the night. At daybreak on the following morning, the 12th of August, they moved on, the road becoming more and more difficult as they advanced. At 10 o'clock an hour's halt was given, to refresh the men and cattle. On advancing two miles further, the enemy were discovered, lining the belt of formidable jungle which covered the approach to Jugdeespoor. Along their front was a river, fortunately fordable. In their centre was the town of Dulloor, in front of which some breastworks had been raised. An advanced picket occupied the small village of Nuraympoor, from which our skirmishers soon dislodged them. The mutineer sepoys held N N

the town of Dulloor, and the right of the enemy's position: while Kowursingh's levies of horse and foot extended for some distance to their left. The mutineers were so screened behind broken ground and jungle as to be almost undiscernible, until the near approach of our skirmishers drew forth their fire: whereupon two 9-pounders immediately opened on them with grape, causing considerable confusion among them, and the whole body of them were seen to shift their position more to the right. No sooner did the men of H. M.'s 10th Foot perceive this movement, than they became impatient to be led to the attack, burning as they were to avenge the death of their comrades, so recently destroyed in the ambuscade near Arrah. Major Eyre accordingly despatched Captain Hastings with an order to charge. Almost ere this could be delivered, they rushed forward, cheering loudly; and, nobly led on by Captain Patterson, charged to within sixty yards of the enemy, who fled for refuge before them behind the walls of the town of Dulloor, and the thickest part of the adjacent jungle. They were hotly pursued, both by the 10th, and the detachment of the 5th Fusiliers, under Captains L'Estrange and Scott, who had meanwhile been engaged in repulsing the enemy's left and centre. Kowursingh's irregular levies on the left had meanwhile taken up a threatening position on our right flank, and were gradually closing in upon it, under cover of the jungle and broken ground. But they were held in check by the admirable fire of Captain L'Estrange's skirmishers, aided by Mr. Wake's Seikhs, and Lieutenant Jackson's Volunteer Yeomanry. They were finally driven back by the destructive fire of the howitzer, under the excellent management of Staff Sergeant Melville, of the Artillery. After a contest of about an hour, the whole body of the enemy retreated on Jugdeespoor; a running fight being kept up through a mile and a half of the jungle, up to the walls of that place. Two guns were captured during their flight; and the force rapidly penetrated through the town, with but little further opposition, and entered the stronghold of Kowursingh in triumph at 1 P.M. This was an extensive mass of buildings, protected by lofty walls, with loopholes for musketry, and capable of making a formidable resistance, if properly defended. * Kowursingh's mansion was a conspicuous and handsome building, which, with his cucchery, afforded ample accommodation for the European troops. The town of Jugdeespoor having been deserted by its inhabitants, no accurate intelligence could be procured regarding the movement of Kowursingh and his followers, until the following day (the 13th), when it was ascertained that he had evacuated his stronghold only one hour before the entry of the British force, and had fled in the direction of Jutoora, distant seven miles to the south; where he had a favourite retreat in the midst of the jungle. Major Eyre accordingly detached Captain L'Estrange, with eighty men of the 5th Fusiliers, and the whole of the Volunteer Yeomanry, in pursuit; but on reaching Jutoora, they found that Kowursingh had hurried on towards Sasseram, with the remains of the 40th Regt. N. I., the only sepoys who now adhered to him; those of the 7th and 8th N. I. having proceeded westward in a state of complete disorganization. After destroying the place, Captain L'Estrange returned to Jugdeespoor. Meanwhile, Major Eyre had undermined every principal building in Kowursingh's stronghold, including a new Hindoo temple, whereon large sums had recently been expended. At 2 P.M. on the 15th of August, the force vacated their quarters: the mines were sprung; and the whole was reduced to a heap of ruins. Kowursingh had collected within his walls, stores of grain sufficient to have subsisted 20,000 men for six months. This the neighbouring villagers were allowed to remove; they having been reduced to great destitution by the licence and rapacity of Kowursingh's followers. Large stores of ammunition and material of war were also found, and much miscellaneous property; the former of which were destroyed. On the 16th of August, pending the receipt of instructions from the military authorities at Dinapoor, Major Eyre marched in pursuit of Kowursingh in the direction of Sasseram as far as Peeroo, from which place a practicable gun-road leads to Arrah. Here instructions reached him from Sir James Outram to return to Arrah, as every available European soldier would be required for the relief of Lucknow. Before leaving Peeroo, it was ascertained that Kowursingh had proceeded rid Bijeegurh towards Reewah, with the ultimate intention of joining the mutineers at Dehli. The force reached Arrah on the 19th of August, and on the same night Major Eyre sent back the detachment of H.M.'s 10th Regt. to Dinapoor. On the following afternoon, at 3 P.M. he marched with the remainder of his force for Buxar, which he reached early on the 23rd, and found the fort occupied by a company of H.M.'s 90th Light Infantry. On the following day, he was visited by the

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