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DEMONSTRATIVE (ADJECTIVE) PRONOUNS.

The demonstrative pronouns are this and that, with their corresponding plurals, these and those. They are called demonstrative, because they demonstrate, or point out, persons or things.

This (plur. these) is used in speaking of what is near us; that (plur. those) points to what is at some distance from us. This also refers to the present time; that, to the past.

The words this, that, these, and those, like other adjectives, are frequently used independently, as nouns, referring to things or persons understood; as, 'Give me that;' What are these?' &c.

EXERCISE.

Substitute demonstrative pronouns for the words in italics, and supply them in the blank spaces.

Show me the books (which are near you). What have you done with the pens (which you had yester

day)? Which do you prefer; the desk (on the table near me), or the work-box (yonder)? What can all mean? Both wealth and poverty are temptations: the one tends to excite pride; the other, discontent. What is the cause of noise? Which pens will you have; ? Your brother is arrived.

or

Yes, I know. They are disputing about what you spoke of day when we were in the country. ? Now,

Did he say

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is the difficulty (which

apples (before us) are

minute. He rose

instant from his

not so good as — have it

we bought yesterday. You shall

seat. Luxury and avarice are both injurious to society: the former by its enervating effects; the latter by its manifest injustice. Come and look at insects.

were the only persons left behind.

book from the shelf.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.

Take

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The words who, whose, whom, which, and what, are called interrogative pronouns when they are used in asking questions; as, 'Who did that?' • Whose book is this?'

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Whom did you • What do you

Who, is used of persons; what, is used of things.

Which, is used both of persons and things. Whose, is used possessively (and means 'belonging to whom?').

Whom, is used objectively, and depends on a verb or preposition.

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have you done with your needle? have you

can you be thinking of? With

been conversing?

or Tacitus?

affairs?

is the better historian, Livy do you think of the present state of opinion do you approve of?

be the more advisable, to drive or to walk?

will

do

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The above pronouns are also used as relatives— that is, when they relate to persons or things already mentioned; as, "This is the boy who brought the apples;' The pen which I mended;' 'He whose opinion was asked.'1

The person or thing referred to by the relative is called its antecedent.

What, is used relatively for the thing or things which; as, 'This is what you want.'

That, is frequently used for the relative who or which:

1. In speaking of things without life; as, 'The box that I bought.'

2. After an adjective in the superlative degree; as, 'The most beautiful view that can be imagined.'

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3. After the interrogative pronoun who;' as, Who that thinks deeply on such matters can fail to arrive at this conclusion?'

EXERCISE.

Let the pupil supply the proper relative or interrogative pronouns in the blank spaces.

The man brought these books is the person to I paid the money. Where is the rose you this morning? I have

will suit you exactly. we were speaking of. Who resist such an appeal?

I gave

just met with something These are the dresses

has any feeling can do you think of this

affair? They think so are very much mistaken.

I did not quite understand

you been talking about?

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you said.

This is the best plan

you can adopt. I have lost some of the paper

have

I

It

did
you see in the park?
was ever conceived. They

bought yesterday.

is the boldest design

cannot be the boys

I saw at your house.

you have, the apple or the pear? I do not care

will

Give me the pencil he of I spoke. He did not neglect

was here just now. This is I said is perfectly correct. he conceived to be his duty. No one can tell

of you has done this?

happen to-morrow.

can doubt of this truth?

this the letter

cannot tell

may

that reflects for a moment notion was that? Is

you showed me this morning? I you may be thinking of. Demosthenes

was the greatest orator

ever lived.

VERBS.

A verb is a word which expresses action or being; as, be, come, talk, think.

Verbs have number, person, mood, tense, and conjugation.

They have two numbers, singular and plural, as in nouns; and three persons, the first, second, and third, in each number.

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or manners of expressing an action: 1st, the Indicative; 2nd, the Imperative; 3rd, the Potential; 4th, the Subjunctive; and 5th, the Infinitive.

1. Indicative means 'pointing out,' or 'showing.' Those forms of the verb in which an action

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