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ships of the line and one fifty-gun ship, and a French squadron, consisting of the same number of (hips of the line and one forty-gun ship. Some of the ships in both fleets received considerable damage in the action, and the loss of the English was thirty killed, and seventy-three wounded • but no ship was taken on either side. The British fleet had, however, considerably the advantage; as the French were obliged to retire, and were supposed to be prevented by this action from carrying troops up the Chesapeak, in order to attack General Arnold and impede the progress of Lord Cornwallis. But it was an unfortunate circumstance, that some time before this engagement the Romulus, a ship of forty-four guns, was captured by the French off the Capes of Virginia.

Lord Cornwallis, after his victory over General Greene at Guildford, proceeded, as we have seen, to Wilmington, where he arrived on the 7th of April. But before he reached that place, he published a proclamation, calling upon all loyal subjects to stand forth and take an active part in restoring good order and government; and declaring to all persons who had engaged in the present rebellion against his majesty's authority, but who were now convinced of their error, and desirous of returning to their duty and allegiance, that if they would surrender themselves with their arms and ammunition at head quarters, or to the officer commanding in the district contiguous to their respective places of residence, on or before the 20th of that month, they would be permitted to return to their homes upon giving a military parole; they would be protected intheir persons andproperties from all sorts of violence from the British troops and would be restored as soon as possible to all the privi leges of legal and constitutional government. But it does notappear that any considerable number of the Americans were allured by these promise* to give any evidences of their attachment to the royal cause.

On the 20th of May, his Lordship arrived at Petersburgh in Vir.

ginia, where he joined a body of British troops that had been under the

command of Major-general Philips; but the command of which, in

consequence of the death of that officer, had devolved upon Brigadier

general Arnold. Before this junction he had encountered considerable

inconveniences from the difficulty of procuring provisions and forage;

so that in a letter ro Sir Henry Clinton, he informed him, that his

•cavalry wanted every tiling, and his infantry every thing but shoes.

He added, that he had experienced the distresses of marching hundreds

of miles in a country chiefly hostile, without one active or useful friend,

without intelligence, and without communication with any part of the country.

On the 26th of June, about six miles from Williamsburgh, Lieutenant-colonel Simcoe, and three hundred and fifty of the queen's rangers,

with with eighty mounted yagers, were attacked by a much superior bodyof she Americans; but whom they repulsed with great gallantry andvtii equal success, making four officers and twenty private men prisons!:. The loss of the Americans in this action is said to have been upwaidi os one hundred and twenty, and that os the British troops not more than forty.

On the 6th of July an action happened near the Green Springs in Virginia, lietween a reconnoitring party of the Americans under General Wayne, amonnting to about eight hundred, and a large part of die British army, under Lord Cornwallis; in which the Americans hi one hundred aud twenty-seven killed and wounded, and the loss of the royal troops is supposed to have been considerably greater. It was an action in which no small degree of military skill and courage was exhibited by the Americans. In a variety of skirmishes, the Marquis h Fayette very much distinguished himself, and displayed the utmost ardour in the American cause.

In South Carolina, an action happened on the gth of September near Eata Springs, between a large body of British troops under the command of Lieutenant-colonel Stuart and a much superior body of Americans, {aid to amount to more than four thousand, under the command of General Greene. It was an obstinate engagement, and lasted near two hours; but the Americans were defeated, and two of their fix-pounders fell into the hands of the English. The loss, however, of the royal troops was very considerable; amounting to more than four hundred killed and wounded, and upwards of two hundred missing.

In the course of the same month, General Arnold was sent on an expedition against New London, in Connecticut, where he destroyed a a great part of the (hipping, and an immense quantity of naval stores, European manufactures, and East and 'West India commodities. Tie town itself was also burnt, which is said to have been unavoidable on account of the explosions of great quantities of gunpowder which happened to be in the storehouses that were set on fire. A fort, of which it was thought necessary to gain possession in this expedition, was not taken without considerable loss. This, was fort Griswold; which was defended by the Americans with great gallantry, and the assault was made by the English with equal bravery. The British troops entered the works with fixed bayonets, and were opposed with great vigour by the garrison with long spears. After a most obstinate defence of near forty minutes, the assailants gained possession of the fort, in which eighty-five Americans were found dead, and sixty wounded, most of them mortally. Of the British troops Major Montgomery was killed by a spear

in e'hteririg the" Ameriaan works; and one hundred and ninety-two men were also killed and wounded in thisexpediton.

Notwithstanding the signal advantages that Lord Cornwallis had obtained over the Americansj his situatioa in Virginia began by degrees to be very critical: and the rather because he did not receive those reinforcements and supplies from Sir Henry Clinton, of which he had formed expectations, and which he conceived to be necessary to the success of his operations. Indeed, the commander in chief was prevented from fending those reinforcements to Lord Cornwallis which he otherwise might have done, by his fears respecting New York, against which he entertained great apprehensions that General Washington intended to make a very formidable attack. In fact, that able American general appears to have taken much pains, and to have employed great finesse, in order to lead Sir Henry Clinton to entertain this imagination. Letters, expressive of this intention, fell into the hands of Sir Henry, which were manifestly written with a design that they should be intercepted, and only with a view to amuse and deceive the British general. The project was successful; and by a variety of judicious military manœuvres, in which he completely out-generalled the British commander, he increased his apprehensions about New York, and prevented him from sending proper assistance to Lord Cornwallis. Having for a considerable time kept Sir Henry Clinton in perpetual alarm in New York, though with an army much inferior to the garrison of that city, General Washington suddenly quitted his camp at White Plains, crossed the Delaware, and marched towards Virginia, apparently with a design to attack Lord Cornwallis. Sir Henry Clinton then received information that the Count de Grasse, with a large French fleet, was expected every moment in the Chesapeak, in order to co-operate with General Washington. He immediately endeavoured, both by land and water, lo communicate this information to Lord Cornwallis; and also sent him assurances, that he would cither reinforce him by every possible means in his power, or make the best diversion he could in his favour. In the mean time, Lord Cornwallis had taken pofSpion of the posts of York Town and Gloucester in Virginia, where he fortified himself in the best manner he was able. \

On the 28th of August, Sir Samuel Hood, with a squadron from the West Indies, joined the squadron under the command of Admiral Graves before New York. It was then necessary, on account of the, situation of Lord Cornwallis, that they should immediately proceed to the Chesapeak; but some time appears to have been needlessly lost, though Admiral Hood was extremely anxious that no delay might be 4 D ma4e. made. They arrived, however, in the Chesapeak, on the 5th of Sep. tember, with nineteen (hips of the line; where they found the Count de Grasse, who had anchored in that bay on the 30th of August witbj twenty-four (hips of the line. The French admiral had previously landed a large body of troops, which had been brought from Rhode Island, and who immediately marched to join the American army under General Washington. The British and French fleets came to an action on the fame day in which the former arrived in the Chesapeak. On board the British fleet ninety were killed and two hundred and forty-six wounded: some of the ships were greatly damaged in the engagement; and the Terrible, a seventy-four gun ship, was so much shattered, that it was afterwards found necessary to set sire to it. That this action had not been favourable to the English, was manifest from tjie event: the fleets continued in sight of each other for five days successively, and sometimes were very near; but at length the French fleet all anchored within the Cape, so as to block up the passage. Admiral Graves, who was the commander in chief, then called a counsel of war, in which it was resolved that the fleet should proceed to New York, that the ships might be there put in the best state for the service : and thus were the French left masters of the navigation of the Chesapeak.

Before the news of this action had reached New York, a council of war was held there, in which it was resolved, that five thousand men lhould be embarked on board the kings (hips, in order to proceed to the assistance of Lord Cornwallis. But when it was known that the French were absolute masters of the navigation of the Chesapeak, it was thought inexpedient to fend off that reinforcement immediately. In another council of war, it was resolved, that as Lord Cornwallis had provisions to last him to the end of October, it was advisable to wait for more favourable accounts from Admiral Graves, or for the arrival of Admiral Digby, who was expected with three ships of the line. It was not then known at New York, that Admiral Graves had determined to return with the whole fleet to that port.

In the mean time, the most effectual measures were adopted by General Washington for surrounding the British army under Lord Cornwallis. A large body of French troops under the command of Lieutenant-general the Count de Rochambeau, with a very considerable train of artillery, assisted in the enterprise. The Americans amounted to near eight thousand continentals, and five thousand militia. General Washington was invested with the authority of commander in chief ot these combined forces of America and France. On the 29th of September, the investment of York Town was complete, and the Hritiih


army quite blocked up. The day following Sir Henry Clinton wrote a letter to Lord Cornwallis, containing assurances that he would do every thing in his power to relieve him, and some information concerning the steps that would be taken for that purpose. A duplicate of this letter was sent to his Lordship by Major Cochran, on the 3d of October. That gentleman, who was a very gallant officer, went in a vessel to the Capes, and made his way to Lord Cornwallis, through the whole French fleet, in an open boat. He got to York Town ok the roth of the month; and soon alter his arrival had his head carried off by a cannon ball.'

After the return of Admiral Graves to New York, a council of war was held, consisting of flag and general officers, in which it was resolved, thar a large body of troops should be embarked on board the king's ships as soon as they were refitted, and that the exertions of both fleet and army should be made in order to form a junction with Lord Cornwallis. Sir Henry Clinton himself embarked on board the fleet, with upwards of seven thousand troops, on the 18th ; they arrived off Cape Charles, at the entrance of the Chesapeak, on the 24th, where they received intelligence that Lord Cornwallis had been obliged to capitulate five days before.

It was on the 19th of October that Lord Cornwallis surrendered himself and his whole army, by capitulation, prisoners to the combined armies of America and France, under the command of General Washington. He made a defence suitable to the character he had before acquired for courage and military skill; but was compelled to submit to untoward circumstances and superior numbers. It was agreed by the articles of capitulation, that the British troops were to be prisoners to the United States of America, and the seamen to the French king, to whose officers also the British vessels found at York Town and Gloucester were to be delivered up. The British prisoners amounted to more than six thousand; but many of them, at the time of surrender, were incapable of duty. A considerable number of cannon, and a large quantity of military stores, fell into the hands of the; Ainericans on this occasion.

As no rational expectation now remained of a subjugation of the colonies, the military operations that succeeded in America were of little consequence. Some inconsiderable actions and skirmishes did indeed take place after that event; in which the refugees chiefly distinguished themselves, and discovered an inveterate animosity against the Americans. On the ethos May 1782, Sir Guy Carle ton arrived at New York, being appointed to the command of the British troops in

|D» America

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