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Review--Lectures on Physiology, &c.
brain; we take it for granted, bene animal organs ;- first shewing themvolently bestowed upon the former, if, selves when they are first developed indeed, benevolence consists in ren - coming to perfection as they are perdering a being sensible of his mise- fected ;-modified by their various afries and hard fate, when compared fections ;-decaying as they decay, with that of his fellow-creatures :- and finally ceasing when they are dethat while his neighbours are wantonly stroyed. sporting, and revelling in all the lux- “Examine the niind, the grand uries of life, he is destitute of the prerogative of man. Where is the scanty means of a miserable exis- mind of the fotus? Where that of the tence ;-that withont curtailing in any child just born? Do we not see it acessential degree the comforts of his tually built up before our eyes by the neighbours, Providence might have actions of the five external senses, and appropriated a small portion of their of the gradually developed internal superfluities to supply his wants, and faculties?”—Now, as the mind, acalleviate bis sufferings ;-that while to cording to Mr. Lawrence, is merely the inferior animals, from which he the result of medullary structure, we differs only in a clearer perception of, cannot conceive why the foetus should and more exquisite sensibility to be entirely destitute of it-we find the his unhappy state, are allowed and other animal functions, and which are afforded the means of supplying their the result of organization, go on; and wants, and gratifying their appetites, that they are performed with both with whatever can contribute to these health and vigour. We would ask, purposes, without the slightest pang therefore, why is there not a similar or the least particle of remorse; un- development of mind ?-In the infant fortunate man alone is debarred from just born, the liver secretes bile, the similar advantages by the stings of stomach digests food, the heart and conscience, or restrained by laws vascular system circulate the blood, from exercising the privileges of his and the longs perform the function of more happy animal associates. Game respiration ; whence does it happen is the prey of every animal which has that the brain is so far behind its strength and vigour to pursue it, ex- associates in organization? Why are cept man, to some of whom this right its functions delayed longer than those is denied, by the exercise of that su- of other parts? Mr. Lawrence supperior medullary developement by poses thai the growth of the intellecwhich he has been so benevolently tual powers-their perfection in mandistinguished. If the attributes of the bood-decay in old age—and final Divine Being, as we are taught to annihilation in death-as he gratuibelieve, consist in superior wisdom, tously assumes, are sufficient evimercy, justice, and excellence, we dence of their materiality. must candidly confess, that if Mr. “Do we not trace it advancing by Lawrence's speculations be correct, a slow progress through infancy and the creation presents the most strange childhood, to the perfect expansion and unaccountable exercise of them of its faculties in the adult-annihisuch a medley as to exceed the utmost lated for a time by a blow on the head bounds of human fancy. Indeed, or the shedding a little blood in apowhen we compare the purely profes- plexy ;-decaying as the body declines sional with the metaphysical part of in old age ;--and tipally reduced to an Mr. Lawrence's book, we are tempted amount hardly perceptible, when the to doubt their being the production of body, worn out by the mere exercise the same identical individual. The of the organs, reaches, by the simple disparity in the accuracy and acate- operation of natural decay, that state ness of the reasoning, is so glaring and of decrepitude most aptly termed seconspicuous, as would fully justify cond childhood.”—p. 7. such a conclusion ; and it incontesta- Mr. Lawrence evidently would ipfer bly proves how much he is out of his from these paragraphs, that as the element, when engaged in metaphysi- animal functions suffer derangement cal disquisitions. At page 6th, we from the morbid affections of their are presented with the following spe- respective organs, and the mind sufcimen of bis reasoning.
fers in like manner from similar aflec“On the other hand, I see the ani- tions of the brain ; as the animal mal functions inseparable from the functions are those of their respective organs, so is mind the function of how is it that this secretion should be the brain.
so extremely subtil ? Does it bear Mr. Lawrence, page 83, cautions the slightest resemblance, or even the us against arguments from analogy. most distant analogy, to any thing We are well inclined to profit by the else? Really such doctrines lead to hint, and willing also to improve upon absurdities too gross, too glaring, to it; therefore we cannot assent to illa- be entertained even for a moment. tions from wrong and misrepresented After taking a view of the modern principles -Cannot the youngest ty- history of comparative anatomy, he ro in anatomy demonstrate the animal forcibly recommends zoology and nato be the functions of their respective tural history as a very essential and organs ? Can there be a doubt that the important study. liver secretes bile? that the kidneys " The resemblances which animals secret urine? or the glands of the bear to ourselves in frame and acmoutb the saliva ? But bas Mr. Law- tions, naturally lead us to ascribe to rence, or any other anatomist, demon- them our own feelings, to fancy that strated thought to be a secretion from they are susceptible of our pleasures the brain ?
and pains, actuated by our desires Let us assume thought to be a se- and aversions, and impelled by the cretion from the brain, and examine same motives or springs of action, its relation to other secretions. We and this excites in the mind of the find that the various organs separate youngest and most unlearned, a symtheir appropriate secretions from the pathetic interest, and a degree of cublood, and that these secretions al- riosity, which are never felt in exaways present their peculiar charac- mining inorganic nature, or in conters, and by which, even when in a templating its phenomena. None of morbid state, they can be easily recog- the exhibitions in a fair are nized. Nor can they be altered, sup- crowded by young and old, the ignopressed, or augmented, hy the will of rant and the learned, than the collecthe animal. They likewise bear cer- tions of foreign and curious animals ; tain relative proportions to the circu- no books are more generally read than lating mass from which they are sepa- descriptions of the form, actions, harated, and they are material like the bits, instincts, and character, of livblood from which they are produced. ing creatures.”-p.38 and 39. Is this the case with thought, the We agree with Mr. Lawrence, that assumed function of the brain ? Has nothing can be more interesting than not man the most unlimited power the phenomena of organic nature. The over his thoughts? Are they not en- supreme wisdom, manifested in every tirely subjected to his control? Do gradation, affords an abundant barthey bear any ratio to the quantity of vest for the contemplative mind. We blood circulating in the vessels of the behold, even in the lowest works of brain ?-or does the heart obey the nature, sufficient cause of wonder and demands of the brain, and cause a | admiration; but as we ascend in the greaterinflux of blood into the cerebral scale, the mind is raised to the highest vessels upon extraordinary occasions? pitch of amazement. Mr. Lawrence's If this should be the case, what must work plainly demonstrates that the become of all the other unfortunate opportunities afforded him of contemparts of the body, when the brain plating organized nature bave not makes some of its extraordinary de- been neglected or thrown away. But mands? There are occasions in the what impressions have his observaHouse of Commons, upon which the tions produced on himself? How can whole circulating fluid in the Marquis we reconcile, with his general perspiof Londonderry, or Mr. Canning, cuity and good sense, the following would scarcely supply the brain for observations on different animals ?— one column of their speech, as printed “When we see some sagacious and in the newspapers—but yet we find docile, capable of instruction, exhithem, after an exertion of ten such biting mental phenomena analogous columns, capable of entering immedi- to our own--the genus or imperfect ately upon a totally new topic, with state of what, when more developed, an undiminished fertility of ideas. is human intellect.”- p. 44. We do Lastly, if thought, like all the other not hesitate here to declare ourselves secretions from the blood, be material; perfectly at issue with Mr. Lawrence; 673
Review_Lady Jane Gray and her Times.
-We never observed nor heard of any never was thought without a brain ?-thing, even like an approximation to Did Mr. Lawrence ever know of the human intellect, in the lower or- thought without a circulating system? ders of animals. What (we take it) or did he ever detect thought except he would designate as intellect, are in conjunction with an animal body? merely the peculiar properties of the If then Mr. Lawrence's argument animals, born with them, and as na- avail any thing—a heart or circulating tural to and inseparable fro the as apparatus is as essential to thought as the distinctive properties of matter a brain, and an animal body as requiare from its various kinds. It is the site as either; and precisely the same peculiar nature of a greyhound to arguments—the same sort of evidence course a hare-of a pointer to point at wbich would lead us to infer thought a partridge--and these properties are to be the function of the brain-would as peculiar to them as inertia, gra- also enable us to conclude that it was vity, or any other of its properties, are the function of the heart, or of an anito unorganized matter.
mal body-of each individually and We are quite at a loss to under- separately; and of both conjointly. stand Mr. Lawrence, when he says he Strange absurdity! cannot conceive life without an ani- Mr. Lawrence assumes, that the mal body. What would he define properties of inert or inorganic matter “ vegetable life” to be? So obscure is are equally wonderful with the vital the distinction between vegetable and manifestations. “ For those who animal life, that no accurate and think it impossible that the living orsufficient distinction has yet been sug- ganic structures should have vital gested.
properties without some extrinsic aid Mr. Lawrence endeavours to sup- --although they require no such assistport his hypothesis by a kind of nega- ance for the equally wonderful affinitive analogy
ties of chemistry, for gravity, elastiThere is no digestion without an city, or the other properties of matalimentary cavity; no biliary secre- ter;--a great variety of explanations, tion without some kind of liver; no suited to all tastes and comprehenthought without a brain.”—page 57. sions, has been provided.”-page 78.
This argument is evidently inade- Can Mr. Lawrence really mean what quate ; suppose bile to be something he here asserts? If Providence had like thought, but only manifested endowed organized beings with the when a liver formed part of the struc- properties of matter only, all our acture in which bile was detected; would tions must bave been the result of it thence follow that bile was the pe- fixed and established principles, over culiar function or secretion of the which we could have no control; we liver? No, no more than it follows should have been purely automata ; that thought is a secretion of the and whenever it was necessary to brain.
effect any change, any deviation from Bile can be traced through its pro- the natural result, there must have gress, and can be proved to be formed | been an immediate exercise of Alby the *hepatic veins from the blood mighty Power. As we think we have --but thought cannot be traced ema- shewn the facts here advanced to be nating from the vessels of the brain, misrepresented, it is unnecessary to and remaining stored in the ventricles pursue this part of the subject furtill required.--But further, the diffe- ther. rent secretions are substantiated,
(To be continued.) they are matter, secreted from matter, by matter, similar to themselves; but is thought material ? No—then how Review.-Lady Jane Grey, and her could it be secreted by matter from Times. By George Howard, Esq. matter?-What availeth it to say there 8vo. pp. 400. London : Sherwood,
on Neely, and Jones. 1822.
It is the Vena Porta (which, taking on itself the office of an artery) secretes bile, and There is scarcely any species of litepresents the only and most striking exception rary composition more pleasing than nomy : secretion being in every other instance biography ; but this pleasure is in a the function of the arterial system, and not of great measure diminished by the contbe venous.
sideration, that there is scarcely any
thing more difficult, than to obtain a ous rank in the nation, developing, at faithful delineation of individual cha- | the same time, the ferocious spirit for racter. In the humble walks of life, which the age in which she lived was every man has both his friends and his remarkably distinguished. Those who enemies; and by whomsoever among wish to see embodied in a short conthese the biography is undertaken, we pass, that branch of English history, may expect to find either some tints which, during this period encircled of colouring or some tincture of shade, the throne of Britain, will find a fund with which impartiality could easily of interesting matter in the volume bedispense. But when we ascend still fore us. higher among the ranks of mortals, That the character of Lady Jane is surveying human nature in connection drawn in so clear a light, as to prewith thrones and sceptres, and per- clude all objections and all diversity ceive individuals either exalted by of opinion, we are not prepared to success, or depressed by misfortune, assert. Such a biography is not placnew obstacles present themselves to ed within the reach of mortals ; but the biographer. While the means of we feel no hesitation in avowing, that, furnishing a faithful narrative are in should this volume be taken up and his power, political motives, party examined by an individual unintius feelings, and popular opinion enced by former publications, his
their influence, and before the com- mind would instanily assent to the mon tide which these occasioned has probability and plausibility of all the subsided, the shadows of oblivion parts in her history, which the biogragather round innumerable facts and pher has combined; and, while he incidents, which would give life to felt indignant at her fanatic persecunarrative, and in their joint operation tors, he would sigh in pity over her furnish a fair development of cha- unhappy doom. racter.
This work is not more instructive, Lady Jane Grey is one of those than it is entertaining. It abounds celebrated, but unfortunate individu- with sketches of private history, which als, whose name is destined to live in have all the charms that novelty and history, amidst all the revolutions anecdote can communicate, illustrathat are attendant upon empire ; | tive of the times, and of the spirit to though for this celebrity, it is melan- which they gave birth. It represents choly to add, that she is more in- Lady Jane as lovely, learned, intellidebted to the scaffold than to the gent, and truly pious, but whose throne.
greatness of soul never shone with In collecting materials for the life of brighter emanations, than when it this unfortunate lady, Mr. Howard forsook the body on the fatal block. has manifested a considerable degree The printing department is well exof industry, and his application has ecuted, and to such as delight in the not been abandoned by success. So history of royalty and its appendages, far as the lapse of time will allow, and we doubt not that this book will be a the veils of obscurity can be removed, valuable acquisition. We sincerely he has placed the character of Lady wish it, what we think it deserves-a Jane Grey in an impartial light; and rapid and an extensive scale. if the picture does not exhibit a fair resemblance, the fault must be attributed to the causes already noticed, Review.-Two Voyages to New South and not to any partial disposition in Wales, und Van Diemen's Land. the author. Through the whole of her eventful life, Lady Jane was rather
( Concluded from col. 573.) unfortunate than criminal; and by suffering under the axe of the execu- Happy as we feel ourselves in the tioner, she has bequeathed the me- contemplation of so much good being mory of her persecutors to the execra- ettected anjong the lowest class of tion of posterity.
society--the very concentration of inThis work, as its title imports, is famy and pollution by the vigilant not confined to the life of this unfortu- attention of one or two individuals; nate lady. It brietiy delineates the it is a subject of the most acute ancharacters of the principal individuals, guish to every feeling miud, to think who at that period held a conspicu- that after all the pains and all the
677 Review--Two Voyages to New South Wales, 8c 678 Jabour wbich had been bestowed upon , servant is assigned, is required by the convicts in these two voyages, to authority of the local government, to correct the habits and reform the pay as wages £10 per annum, to a vices; yet that on arriving at the end male, and €7 to a female, besides of their journey, (at Sydney,) a most board and lodging. The male conlamentable source of mischief present- victs who are not thus disposed of, are ed itsell to the female convict on the formed into gangs,which are stationed very threshold of her exile.
in different parts of the country, in On the morning after the prisoners government employ ; such as making had been landed, our author found and repairing roads, and various other that many of them had spent the night public works. Those who are emin noise and indecent revelry, occa- ployed at Sydney, and its vicinity, sioned by beer and spirits, and which are lodged in a barrack, wbich is fitted could not have been done without the for the accommodation of about 800 knowledge of the keepers. The num- persons. There is also another buildbers of bonses licensed for the sale of ing of the same kind at Emu-Plains, beer and spirits, besides those where but on a smaller scale. The barrack the like are vended clandestinely, re- at Sydney, is spacious and lofty, tard most powerfully the growth of erected in an healthy and appropriate moral reserve, and that rectitude of situation: it is thoroughly ventilated, principle necessary to the existence of and kept exceedingly clean. Since a well-ordered community. Here the erection of this barrack, the conthen is a constant running stream of victs are locked up regularly at eight licentiousness, which it is feared will o'clock at night, which is an advanlong continue to characterize the in- tage long desired, as it is a preventive fant colony, unless legislative means against associating with the publicbe applied to counteract it. If there house keepers, thieves, and receivers be an individual who cherishes a of stolen goods. They work from six spark of virtue, which pious reflection in the morning till six in the evening, and holy desire were kindling into a Saturday excepted, when they are flame, such a scene of continued ini- / allowed half a day to receive their quity before their eyes is calculated to weekly rations of provisions; and of extinguish it altogether.
course their labour must be much The guardians of public morals, more productive to government than being selected from the convicts, of formerly. course, rarely possess qualities su- Various measures have been adopted perior to those over whom they are to restrain the irregularities of conplaced in authority. Hence the most victs at large ; and punishments of a valuable institutions must fail in their summary nature are frequently imdesign, when upheld and supported by posed. Of these, the most severe, such materials : and although it is next to that of death, is transportation probable that a better system could to the Coal River, which is ordered not be devised than that adopted by usually by his Honour the Judge Adthe present governor; yet for want of vocate, or a bench of Magistrates, for probity and firmness in those who ex- a term of years, or for life, as the ecute his views, the worst abuses must enormity of the offence may require.
In fact, this is evidently the This mode of punishment is very much case, for the Sydney Gazette fre- dreaded by the convicts, because they quently announces the dismissal of are compelled to work in chains from those officers for misconduct.
sun-rise to sun-set, and are subject The public-houses in Sydney, al- also to other restrictions of a highly though only twenty-five in number, penal description. But notwithstandare evidently too numerous, in pro- ing the severity of this punishment, it portion to the population; and are as is frequently relaxed in degree as the much frequented as almost any of criminal shews signs of amendment ; those in the British metropolis. The and in very few instances is it found profits arising from these receptacles necessary to subject any of the conof vice, are so enormous, that the victs to a repetition of the sentence. persons who keep them are enabled to | Punishment by flogging is sometimes accumulate in about three years, what resorted to, though it seldom exceeds they consider a fortune.
25 lashes. For females who commit Every settler to whom a convict the same offences, it is considered