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tempt did the Lord throw upon the idols of Egypt, in making this the memorable spot to deliver Israel.

See Baal-Zephon. PILATE. A name of everlasting infamy, well known to every reader of the Bible, and as universally detested as known. So unjust in his judgment, while acting as the Governor of Judea, that in the very moment he pronounced sentence of death upon the Lord Jesus Christ, he solemnly declared his innocency; and in confirmation of our Lord's holiness and his own guilt, took water and washed his hands before the people in token of the deed. He was Governor of Judea, under the Emperor Tiberius. His name was Pontius as well aś Pilate, perhaps, he might be of Pontus. With what horrors will he arise at the tremendous day of God, when every eye must see Jesus, and they also that pierced him ! when that sacred head he crowned with thorns will appear in the fulness of glory, and before whose presence heaven and earth will pildash

flee away! (Rev. i. 7.) PILDASH. Son of Nahor and Milcah, (Gen. xxiji.

22.) If from Palah, ruin, it should seem that the

name means somewhat ruinous. PILEHA. One of the chief priests in the days of

Nehemiah. (See Neb. x. 24.) The name is proba

bly from Palach, to divide. PILLAR. The pillar of cloud, and the pillar of fire

in the wilderness, which went before and followed Israel, were among the symbols of the divine pre

I do not presume to say as much, or to decide upon a subject of such infinite importance ; but, when we take into one mass of particulars, all that we read of the Lord Jesus Christ in those early ages of the church, methinks I cannot hesitate to believe, that it was Christ that they went before, and that thus surrounded his people during


their whole eventful history, Jacob at Bethel, and Moses at the bush, had real views of Jehovah's glory and fulness in Christ. . The manifestation made on both occasions as the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, plainly shows that the covenant of redemption, in the seed of the woman, was the great and leading cause of all. And as the Holy Ghost hath graciously been pleased in so many words to tell the church, that the Rock which followed Israel was Christ ; (1 Cor. x. 4.) it should seem as if this was intended by the blessed Spirit, to act as a key for opening similar manifestation to the church in those other tokens of divine love, which appear in their wonderful history. Nothing can be more blessed in confirmation of the Re. deemer's love to his church and people, than thus beholding him in the “pillar of cloud by day, and the pillar of fire by night,” conducting and guarding them through all their journey. And as then, so now, every manifestation, under all the various forms of it, was intended to show the church the love he bore to them, and to lead his people into the most endearing views of his love and good will. And hence, the sacred writers, through the several parts of sacred Scriptures, keep up the remembrance of those manifestations in the wilderness, as so many proofs of the Lord's presence with his people.

We are told that “ when Moses went out unto the tabernacle, all the people rose up, and stood every man at his tent door, and looked after Moses, until he was gone into the taberðacle. And it

came to pass, as Moses entered into the tabernacle, the cloudy pillar descended, and stood at the door, of the tabernacle, and the Lord talked, with - Moses.” (Exod. xxxiii.8, 9.) So again the Psalmist saith, that “ he spake unto them in the cloudy pillar.” (Ps, xcix. 7.) Who was it spake unto them


but God in Christ ? Surely all that we hear from God is received in him, and by him, and through him, who is the only Mediator, the Glory-man Christ Jesus. For the Holy Ghost, by John the apostle, tells the church that no man hath seen God at any time ; but he graciously adds, that “ the onlybegotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.” (John i. 18.) And what then can be more plain and evident in proof that Christ is the visible Jehovah, and by whom alone all revelations are made? I need not add what endearing representations all those things made of his person and his love to his church, when taken into one mass of particulars, which we read of Christ under such a vast variety of manifestations which he hath made of himself.

The word pillar is sometimes used in the language of Scripture to denote the church of the Lord Jesus. Thus the Holy Ghost, by Paul, calls the church" the pillar and ground of truth.” (1 Tim.

And it is not a violence to the expression to consider this as in allusion to her Lord, who is the Head of his body the church. For if Jesus be the pillar of cloud, and the pillar of fire; and if, as it is said, “the Lord will create upon every dwelling place of mount Zion, and upon her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night,” (Isa. iv. 5.)—surely there is a great propriety that his church should be called after the name of her Lord. He is the pillar of cloud and of fire; and she by him is made the pillar and ground of truth ; and hence his servants who minister in his name shall be called pillars in his temple. “Him that overcometh, saith Jesus, will I make a pillar in the temple of my God.” (Rev. iii. 11. See Prov. ix. 1.) Hence the Lord saith to Jeremiah, (chap. i. 18.) “Behold, I have

iii. 15.)

made thee this day a defenced city, and an iron pillar.” (See Gal. ii. 9.) And very blessed it is to see, that while Christ is the foundation stone JEHOvah hath laid in Zion, all his redeemed ones are built

upon this foundation, and are lively stones and pillars in this spiritual house, “to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God, through Jesus Christ."

(1 Pet. ii. 5.) PINE TREE. This tree is spoken of in Scripture

by the Lord himself, as one of the trees which the Lord would take to beautify bis sanctuary, (Isa. Ix. 13.) No doubt, it is figuratively spoken in allu

sion to believers. See Cedar Tree. PINNACLE OF THE TEMPLE. We are told that

here it was, on the pinnacle of the temple, the devil, in his temptations of Christ, set the Redeemer. (Matt. iv. 5.) An ordinary reader might herefrom be led to conclude, that if the pinnacle of the temple was like the present towers of our churches, it was hardly possible to have stood upon them. But he should be told that the pinnacles were on square roofs, like terrace walks, with galleries, so that they formed a platform to walk upon.

. One of the Jewish historians relates, that the roof of the temple had spikes of gold on it, to hinder the birds from resting there, that they might not defile it. The pinnacle of the temple, therefore, though high and elevated, yet formed a sufficient spot for walking upon. Probably here, like the galleries the church speaks of, persons retired for

conversation. See Gallery and Galleries. PIRAM. King of Jarmuth. One of the Kings de

stroyed by Joshua. (Josh. x. 3, &c.) If the name is derived from Para, it means the wild ass.

Am is mother. PIRATHON. A city of Ephraim : hence the inha

bitants were called Pirathonites. (Judg. xii. 13.)

From Paral. PISGAH. A mountain over against Jericho. This

place is rendered memorable from Moses. (Deut. xxxiv. 1.) The name means hill or mountain, from

Pasag. PISIDIA. A province in Asia. Here Paul preached

the gospel. (See Acts xiii. 14.) The word is Greek,

meaning pitch. PISON. One of the four great rivers which watered

Eden. (Gen. ii. 11.) Compounded of Pe, mouth,

and Shanah, to change.-A river changing. PITHOM. One of the cities which the children of

Israel built for Pharaoh during their captivity in Egypt. Perhaps the name is derived from Pe, the mouth-and Sham, which signifies to finish ;-but there is no authority for it. A much more important consideration is it to remark the diligence of Israel in their captivity, thus building houses for their masters. Though the Egyptians oppressed them, and made their lives bitter by reason of the task-masters set over them, ye we do not find that the poor captives gave over their duty because of their enemies'cruelty. The Holy Ghost compels the foes of the church thus to give testimony, however unwillingly, to the dutiful and honourable deportment of the people, “ And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Ramases. But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew. And they were grieved because of the children of Israel.” (Exod. i. 11, 12.) I beg the reader to observe how every thing turned out the reverse of their tyrants' intention. Egypt wished to lesson Israel by cruelty: Israel thrived and multiplied the more. Egypt intended to make their lives bitter to them; whereas the bitterness recoiled on themselves. Thus the Lord carries on the

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