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396. Anno ante

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16. IN

CHAPTER VIII.

unto thee; for they have not rejected thee, but Samuel, grown old, makes his sons judges in Beer-sheba, 1, 2 They pervert Judg:

Pthey have rejected me, that I should not reign ment; and the people complain, and disire a king, 3–5' Samuel is displeased, and inquires of the Lor3,6. The Lord is also displease 1; but directs Samuel to appoint

over them. them a king, and to show thern solemnly the consequences of their choice, 7-9. Samuel does so; and shows them what they may expect from an absolute monarch,

S According to all the works which they have and how afilicted they shoull be unle his administration, 10-18... The people redone, since the day that I brought them up out fuse to recerle from their demand; and Samuel lays the matter before the Lord, and dismisses them, 19-22

of Egypt even unto this day, wherewith they An Exod. lr.

ND it came to pass, when Samuel have forsaken me, and served other gods, so do 379. Anno ante I. Olymp 336 judges over Israel.

9 Now therefore a hearken unto their voice: 2 Now the name of his first-born was h Joel; howbeit, yet protest solemnly unto them, and and the name of his second, Abiah: they were show them the manner of the king that shall judges in Beer-sheba.

reign over them. 3 And his sons i walked not in his ways, but 10 | And Samuel told all the words of the turned aside kalter lucre, and I took bribes, and LORD unto the people that asked of him a king: perverted judgment.

11 And he said, This will be the manner of 4 Then all the elders of Israel gathered them- the king that shall reign over you: He will selves together, and came to Samuel unto Ra- take your sons, and appoint them for himself, for mah,

his chariots, and to be his horsemen; and some 5 And said unto him, Behold, thou shall run before his chariots. an. Erol is. art old, and thy sons walk, not in thy 12 And he will appoint him captains over

ways: now m make us a king to judge thousands, and captains over fifties; and will set 1. Olymp. 319. us like all the nations.

them to ear his ground, and to reap his harvests, 6 | But the thing displeased Samuel, when and to make his instruments of war, and instruthey said, Give us a king to judge us. And ments of his chariots. Samuel prayed unto the LORD.

13 And he will take your daughters to be con7 And the LORD said unto Samuel, Hearken fectionaries, and to be cooks, and to be bakers. unto the voice of the people in all that they say 14 And he will take your fields, and your (Deut. 16. 1& 2 Chron. 19. 5.-5. See Judy 10: 4:&12 11, compared with Judge

, . 10.-h Vashni, i Chron. 6. 2-i Jer. 22. 15, 16, 17.-k Exod. 18. 21. 1 Tim. 3. 3. & thou hast solemnly protested against them, then thou shall show, ks- Fe. Il 6. 10. - 1 Deut. 16. 19. Psa. 15. 5.-m Ver. 19. 20. Deut. 17. 14. Hos 13. 10. Aets 13. See Deut. 17. 16, &c. Chap. 10. 25.-u Chap. 14. 52- 1 king 21. 7. See Esok 2.-n Heb. was evil in the eyes of Samuel. - See Exod. 16. 8. Luke 10. 16. - Ch. was the place of his ordinary abode; and there he held “When the laws are perverted by force; when justice is his court, for there he judged Israel: and, as it is proba- expelled from her seat; when judges are swayed from the ble that Shiloh was destroyed, it is said, ver. 12. that there, right; regardless of the vengeance of heaven.” Or, in viz. at Ramah, he built an altar unto the Lord.

other words, these were times in which the streams of RAMAH, which is said to be about six miles from Jeru- justice were poisoned in their source; and judges neither salem, was the seat of prophecy during the life of Sam- feared God, nor regarded man. uel; and there, it is probable, all Israel came to consult Verse Make us a king) Hitherto, from the time in him on matters of a spiritual nature; as there was the which they were a people, the Israelites were under a only altar of God in the land of Israel.

theocracy: they had no other king but God. Now, they NOTES ON CHAPTER VIII.

desire to have a king like the other nations around them,

who may be their general in battle; for this is the point at Verse 1. When Samuel was old) Supposed to be about which they principally aim. sixty

Verse 6. The thing displeased Samuel) Because he He made his sons judges) He appointed them as his saw that this amounted to a formal renunciation of the lieutenants, to superintend certain affairs in Beer-sheba, divine government. which he could not conveniently attend to himself. But Samuel prayed unto the LORD] He begged to know his they were never judges in the proper sense of the word: mind in this important business. Samuel was the last judge in Israel, and he judged it to Verse 7. They have rejected me] They wish to put that the day of his death. See chap. vii. 15.

government in the hands of a mortal, which was always Verse 3. His sons walked not in his ways] Their ini in the hands of their God. But hearken unto their voice; quity is pointed out in three words :They turned aside grant them what they request. So we find God grants after lucre: the original y3a batsâ signifies to cut, clip, that in his displeasure, which he withholds in his mercy. break off ; and, therefore, Mr. Parkhurst thinks that it Verse 9. show them the manner of the king] The means nearly the same with our clipping of coin. Il

, word deur mishepat, which we here render mannet, however, expresses here the idea of avarice; of getting signifies simply what the king would and might require, money by hook or by crook. The Targum says, They according to the manner in which kings in general ruled; looked after pur nos mamon dishekar, the mammon of all of whom, in those times, were absolute and despolie. unrighteousness ;" of which they did not make unto them The whole of this manner of the king is well illustrated selves friends but enemies. See the note on Matt. vi. 24. by Puffendorf. “Hitherto,” says he, “the people of Israel 2. They took bribes; Inw shochad, gifts or presents, to had lived under governors raised up of God, who had blind their eyes. 3. They perverted judgment ; they exacted no tribute of them, nor put them to any charge; turned judgment aside, they put it out of its regular but, little content with this form of government, they desire path; they sold it to the highest bidder; thus the wicked to have a king like other nations, who should live in rich man had his cause, and the poor man was oppressed magnificence and pomp, keep armies, and be able to resist and deprived of his right. This was the custom in our any invasion. Samuel informs them what it was they own country, before Magna CHARTA was obtained: he desired; that, when they understood it, they might consider that would speed in the king's court must bribe all the whether they would persist in their choice. If they would officers, and fee both the king and queen! I have found have a king splendidly attended, he tells them, that he in our ancient records the most barefaced and shameful would take their sons for his chariots, &c.: if they would examples of this kind; but it was totally abolished, in- have him keep up constant forces, then he would appoint vito rege by that provision in the above charter, which them for colonels and captains; and employ those in his states, Nulli vendemus, nulli negabimus, aut differemus wars who were accustomed to follow their family business : rectum aut judicium: "To no man will we sell, to no and since, after the manner of other kings, he must keep man will we deny or defer justice and right." It was a stately court, they must be content that their daughter's customary in those inauspicious times, for judgment to be should serve in several offices, which the king would think delayed, in banco regis, in the king's court, as long as below the dignity of his wives and daughters, ver. 13. there was any hope that more money would be paid, in Many ministers also, in several departments, both of war order to bring it to issue. And there were cases, where and peace, must have salaries to support them, which the king did not like the party, in which he denied justice must be paid out of their fields and vineyards, ver. 14. In and judgment entirely! Magna Charta brought them to one word, that, to sustain his dignity, their king would book, and brought the subject to his right. of those times it might well be said, as Homer did, a royal manner out of their estates.'

exact the tenth of all they possessed, and be maintained in Iliad xvi. v. 397.

It is perfectly vain in Grotius, or any one else, to state Οι βιη ειν αγορη σκολιας κρινωσι θεμιστας,

that this shows what a king (as king) may, any where, in Εν δε δικην ελασωσι, θεων οπιν ουκ αλεγοντες.

virtue of his office, claim and cract; and that he can take "When guilty morala break the eternal Jawa.

the property and persons of his subjects and dispose of Or jugen, brib'd, betray the righteous cause."

them as he may judge necessary for the exigence of the 688

together, 22--27. Ao. Exod. le.

336. Anno Ante

Nobenewas.aamanki Benjamin

, man of God, i to tell us our way.

w Heb eunuchs. Gen. 37. 36.- Prov. 1. 25-2 lsai. 1. 15. Mic. 3. 4.- Jer. 44. 16.-2 Verse 5-a Verxe 7. Hoc 13. 11.- Ch. 14. 51. I Chron. 8. 33.& 9. 39.

vineyards, and your olive yards even the best 2 And he had a son whose name was Saul, a of them, and give them to his servants.

choice young man, and a goodly; and there was 15 And he will take the tenth of your seed, not among the children of Israel a goodlier perand of your vineyards, and give to his wofficers, son than he: from his shoulders and upward and to his servants.

he was higher than any of the people. 16 And he will take your men-servants, and 3 And the asses of Kish, Saul's father, were your maid-servants, and your goodliest young lost. And Kish said to Saul his son, Take now men, and your asses, and put them to his work. one of the servants with thee, and arise, go seek

17 He will take the tenth of your sheep: and the asses. ye shall be his servants.

4 And he passed through mount Ephraim, and 18 And ye shall cry out in that day because of passed through the land of 'Shalisha, but they your king which ye shall have chosen you; and found them not: then they passed through the the LORD ' will not hear you in that day. land of Shalim, and there they were not: and he

19 Nevertheless the people » refused to obey passed through the land of the Benjamites, but the voice of Samuel; and they said, Nay; but they found them not. we will have a king over us;

5. And when they were come to the land of 20 That we also may be like all the nations ; Zuph, Saul said to his servant that was with him, and that our king may judge us, and go out be- Come, and let us return; lest my father leave fore us, and fight our battles.

caring for the asses, and take thought for us. 21 And Samuel heard all the words of the 6 And he said unto him, Behold now, there is people, and he rehearsed them in the ears of the in this city ka man of God, and he is an honLORD.

ourable man: all that he saith cometh surely 22 And the LORD said unto Samuel, · Hearken to pass: now let us go thither; peradventure he unto their voice, and make them a king. And can show us our way that we should go. Samuel said unto the men of Israel, Go ye every 7 Then said Saul to his servant, But, behold, man unto his city.

if we go, i what shall we bring the man for the CHAPTER IX.

bread Fis spent in our vessels, and there is not Saul's lineage and description; he is sent by his father to seek some lost anses, I-5.

a present to bring to the man of God: what Not finding them, he purposes to go ani consult Samuel concerning the proper 1 have we? method of proceeding, 6--14. The Lord informs Samuel that he should anoint Saul king, 15, 16. Samuel invites Soul to dine with him, and informs him that the asses

8 And the servant answered Saul again, and we found, and given him an intimation that he is to be king; 17-2. Saul dines said, Behold, I have here at hand the fourth with Samuel ; both

part of a shekel of silver ; that will I give to the whose name was

9 (Beforetime in Israel, when a man went to - Olymp. 319. of Abiel, the son of Zeror, the son of inquire of God, thus he spake, Come, and let us Bechorath, the son of Aphiah, "a Benjamite, a go to the seer: for he that is now called a Promighty man of d power.

phet, was beforetime called oa Seer.)

h Chap. 3. 19.–1 See Judges 6. 18. & 13. 17. I Kings 14. 3. 2 Kings 1. 42. & 8.

k Heb is gone out of, &c. - Heb. is with us.--m Heb. There is found in my hand Or, the son of a man of Jemini. Ot, substance-Chap. 10. 3.- 2 Kings a Gen. 5. 22.- 2 Sam. 21. 11. 2 Kings 17. 13. 1 Chron. 28. 2. & 29. 2. 2 Chron. 16. 4. 12- Deut. 21 i Kings 31. L.

7, 10. Jeai. 30. 10. Amos 7.12 state. This was the manner of Saul; but Saul was not stood, I mean such a monarchical government as that of a king of God's choosing-"He gave him in his wrath, Great Britain; where the king, the nobles, and the and took him away in his displeasure:" and the manner people, are duly mixed, each having his proper part in the of such a king should not be arrogated by any potentate government; and each preventing

the other from running who affects to rule jure divino, or by divine right. The to excess.-9. That the ihree grand forms of government manner of the king of God's choice is distinctly detailed, which have obtained among mankind; viz. monarchy, arisDeut. xvii. 15—20. to which the reader will do well to tocracy, and democracy, have each certain advantages, refer, that he may have an impartial statement of the subject. without which no state can be well preserved: but they

Verse 19. The people refused to obey] They would have have coils, by which any state may be injured.-10. That the king, his manner and all; notwithstanding the solemn from a proper mixture of these, the advantages of the warning which they here receive !

whole may be reaped without any of their attendant evils; Verse 20. May judge us) This appears to be a rejection and that this is the British constitution ; which, not merely of Samuel.

the wisdom of our ancestors, but the providence of God, Go out before us] Be in every respect our head and has given unto us, and of which no other state has had governor.

common sense enough to avail themselves; though they And fight our battles.) Be the general of our armies. see that, because of this, the British empire is the most

Verse 21. Rehearsed them in the ears of the Lord He poroerful, and the most happy, in the universe ; and likely, went to the altar; and, in his secret devotion, laid the at last, to give laws to the whole world. The manner of whole business before God.

our king is constitutional, widely different from that of Verse 22. Hearken unto their voice) Let them have Saul, and from that of any other po entate in the four what they desire, and let them abide by the consequences. quarters of the globe. He is the father of his people; and

Go ye every man unto his city! It seems the elders of the people feel and love him as such. He has all the the people had tarried all this time with Samuel; and, power necessary to do good; they have all the liberty when he had received his ultimate answer from God, he necessary to their political happiness. told them of it, and dismissed them.

NOTES ON CHAPTER IX. On this account we may observe-1. That God did not Verse 1. A mighty man of power] Literally, a strong change the government of Israel; it was the people them man: this appears to be the only power he possessed; and selves who changed.-2. That, though God permitted them the physical strength of the father may account for the exto have a king, yet he did not approve of him.---3. That, traordinary size of the son. See ver. 2. notwithstanding he did not suffer them to choose the man, Verse 2. From his shoulders and upward] It was he ordered his servant Samuel to choose him by lot, he probably from this very circumstance that he was chosen disposing of that lot.-4. That God never gave up the for king; for, where kings were electire, in all ancient supreme government; he still was King in Israel; and times, great respect was paid to personal appearance. the king, so called, was only the vicegerent, or deputy, of Verse 3. The asses of Kish-were lost.)" 'What a wonthe Lord.-5. That no king of Judah aitempted to be derful train of occurrences were connected in order to bring supreme; therefore, they never made new laws, nor allered | Saul to the throne of Israel! Every thing seems to go on the old: which was a positive confession that God was the according to the common course of events; and yet all supreme legislator.-6. That an absolute monarchy is conspired to favour the election of a man to the kingdom, always an evil; and is contrary to all the rights, civil and who certainly did not come there by the approbation of religious, of mankind; a mode of government that all God. people should avoid, as pregnant with evils to mankind. Asses grow to great perfection in the East: and at this 7. That, although it was a sin in the Israelites to desire a time, as there were no horses in Judea, they were very king : that is, to change a constitution of which God was useful; and on them kings and princes rode. the author; yet, kingly government, properly understood, Verse 5. Wore come to the land of Zuph] Calmet supis a good of the first magnitude to the civil happiness of poses that Saul and his servant went from Gibeah to Shamankind.-3. That, by kingly government, propcly under. I lisha, in the tribe of Dan; from thence to Shaalim, near VOL. I.-87

689

10 Then said Saul to his servant, p Well said ; | hand of the Philistines: for I have looked upon come, let us go. So they went unto the city my people, because their cry is come unto me. where the man of God was.

117 And when Samuel saw Saul, the Lord said 11 | And as they went up the hill to the city, unto him, . Behold the man whom I spake to they found young maidens going out to draw thee of! this same shall reign over my people. water, and said unto them, Is the seer here? 18 Then Saul drew near to Samuel in the

12 And they answered them, and said, He is; gate, and said, Tell me, I pray thee, where the behold, he is before you: make haste now, for he seer's house is. came to-day to the city; for there is a i sacri 19 And Samuel answered Saul, and said, I fice of the people to-day, u in the high place: am the seer: go up before me unto the high

13 As soon as ye be come into the city, ye shall place; for ye shall eat with me to-day; and iostraightway find him, before he go up to the high morrow I will let thee go, and will tell thee all place to eat: for the people will not eat until he that is in thine heart, come, because he doth bless the sacrifice: and 20 And as for «thine asses that were lost afterward they eat that be bidden. Now thered three days ago, set not thy mind on them; for fore get you up; for about this time ye shall find they are found. And on whom is all the desire him.

of Israel? Is it not on thee, and on all thy fa14 And they went up into the city: and when ther's house? they were come into the city, behold, Samuel 21 And Saul answered and said, ' Am not I a came out against them for to go up to the high Benjamite, of the bemallest of the tribes of place.

Israel ? and my family the least of all the fam15 | Now the Lord had * told Samuel in his lilies of the tribe of Benjamin ? wherefore then ear a day before Saul came, saying,

speakest thou i so to me? 16 To-morrow about this time I will send thee 22 And Samuel took Saul and his servant, a man out of the land of Benjamin, ' and thou and brought them into the parlour, and made shalt anoint him to be captain over my people them sit in the chiefest place among them that Israel, that he may save my people out of the were bidden, which were about thirty persons.

p Heb. Thy word is good.- Heb. in the ascent of the city--r Gen. 24. 11. . Gen. 31. 54. Ch. 16. 2 -- Or, feast.--11 1 Kings 3 2- Heb. 10-day.--w Ch. 15. 1. Acus 13 21.- Heb. revealed the ear of Samuel. Ch. 20.2--y Ch 10. 1.

z Exod. 2. 25. & 3. 7, 9.- Ch. 16. 12. Hos 13. 11, -b Heb. restrain in - Ver. 2 d Heb. to-day three days.- Ch. 8. 5, 19. & 12. 13. -- Ch 15. 17.- Jaig 2.14, 47, 48. Psa. 68.27.-- See Judg. 6. 15.-- Heb. cecording to his wort

to Jerusalem; and thence, traversing the tribe of Benjamin,

Bella, horrida bella,

Et Tyberiin null epumantem sanguine cerno they purposed to return to Gibeah; but passing through

En lib. i vec. 86 the land of Zuph, in which Ramatha, the country of Samuel,

Wars, homil war I ries; a field of blood;

And Tyber rolling with a purple flood. was situated, they determined to call on this prophet to gain some directions from him : the whole of this circuit, I think the 9th verse comes more naturally in after the he supposes, to have amounted to no more than about 11th. twenty-five leagues, or three days' journey. We do not Verse 11. Young maidens going out to draw water) know where the places were situated which are here men So far is it from being true, that young women were always tioned: the Targum translates thus—"And he passed kept closely shut up at home, that we find them often in the through the mount of the house of Ephraim, and went field, drawing and carrying water, as here. into the southern land, but did not meet with them. And Verse 12. He came to-day to the city] Though Samuel he passed through the land of Mathbera, but they were not lived chiefly in Ramah, yet he had a dwelling in the counthere; and he passed through the land of the tribe of Ben-try, at a place called Naioth, where it is probable there was jamin, but did not find them; then they came into the land a school of the prophets. See chap. xix. 18–24. where the prophet of the Lord dwell, and Saul said to his A sacrifice of the people). A great feast. The animals servant,

used were first sacrificed to the Lord; that is, their blood Verse 7. There is not a present to bring to the man of was poured out before him; and then all the people fed on God] We are not to suppose from this that the prophets the flesh. By high place, probably Şamuel's altar is alone took money to predict future events: Saul only refers to meant; which, no doubt, was raised on an eminence. an invariable custom, that no man approached a superior Verse 13. He doth bless the sacrifice] He alone can without a present of some kind or other. We have often perform the religious rites, which are used on this occasion. seen this before : even God, who needs nothing, would not Afterward they eat that be bidden] Among the Arabs, that his people should approach him with empty hands. often a large feast is made of sacrificed camels, &e, and

Verse 8. The fourth part of a shekel of silver) We then the people of the vicinity are invited to come and par. find, from the preceding verse, that the bread or provisions take of the sacrifice. This is the custom to which the which they had brought with them for their journey was allusion is made here. expended; else a part of that would have been thought a Verse 14. Came out against them! Met them. suitable present: and here the fourth part of a shekel of Verse 15. Now the Lord had told Samuel] How this silver, about ninepence of our money, was deemed suffi- communication was made we cannot tell. cient; therefore, the present was intended more as a token Verse 16. Thou shall anoint him to be captain] Not of respect than as an emolument.

to be king, but to be 73 nagid, or captain of the Lord's Verse 9. Beforetime in Israel] This passage could not host. But in ancient times no king was esteemed who have been a part of this book originally : but we have al was not an able warrior. Plutarch infoms us, that Alexready conjectured that Samuel, or some contemporary au ander the Great esteemed the following verse the most thor, wrote the memoranda, out of which a later author correct, as to its sentiment, of any in the whole Iliad of compiled this book. This hypothesis, sufficiently reasona Homer :ble in itself, solves all difficulties of this kind.

Ουτο γ' Ατρειδης ευρωκρειων Αγαμεμνων Was beforelime called a Seer] The word seer, ons roch, Αμφοτερον βασιλευς τ' αγαθος, κρατερος occurs, for the first time, in this place: it literally signifies τ' αιχμητης. a person who SEES; particularly prelernatural sights. A

" The king of kings, Atrides, you sirvey; seer and a prophet were the same in most cases; only with

Great in the war, and great in acts of stray." Pogle this difference, the scer was always a prophet, but the pro

Verse 17. Behold the man whom I spako to thee phet was not always a seer. A seer seems to imply one What an intimate communion must Samuel have held who frequently met with, and sau, some symbolical repre with his God! A constant familiarity seems to have exBentation of God. The term prophet was used a long time isted between them. before this; Abraham is called a prophet, Gen. xx. 7. and Verse 19. I am the seer] This declaration would prepare the term frequently occurs in the law. Besides, the word Saul for the communications afterward made. seer does not occur before this time; but often occurs af Verse 20. As for thine asses). Thus he shows him that terioard down through the prophets, for more than three he knew what was in his heart; God having previously hundred years. See Amos vii. 12. Mic. iii. 7.

revealed these things to Samuel. All prophets, false and true, profess to see God: see the And on whom is all the desire of Israel] Saul undercase of Balaam, Numb. xxiv. 4, 16. and Jerem. xiv. 14. stood this as implying that he was chosen to be king. All diviners, in their enthusiastic flights, boasted that they Verse 21. Am not I a Benjamite) This speech of Saul had those things exhibited to their sight which should is exceedingly modest : he was now becomingly humble : come to pass. There is a remarkable account in Virgil, but who can bear elevation and prosperity? The tribe of which may serve as a specimen of the whole : the Sibyl Benjamin had not yet recovered its strength, after the ruinprofeases to be a scer :

ous war it had with the other tribes, Judg. xx.

23 And Samuel said unto the cook, Bring the kissed him, and said, Is it not because the LORD portion which I gave thee, of which I said unto hath anointed thee, to be captain over ' his inthee, Set it by thee.

heritance ? 24 And the cook took up * the shoulder, and 2 When thou art departed from me to-day, that which was upon it, and set it before Saul. then thou shalt find two men by. Rachel's sepulAnd Samuel said, Behold that which is left! chre, in the border of Benjamin, at Zelzah; set it before thee, and eat: for unto this time and they will say unto thee, The asses which hath it been kept for thee, since I said, I have thou wentest to seek are found : and, lo, thy invited the people. So Saul did eat with Samuel father hath left the care of the asses, and sorthat day:

roweth for you, saying, What shall I do for my 25 | And when they were come down from son ? the high place into the city, Samuel communed 3 Then shalt thou go on forward from thence, with Saul upon the top of the house.

and thou shalt come to the plain of Tabor, and 26 And they arpse early: and it came to pass, there shall meet thee three men going up to about the spring of the day, that Samuel called God to Beth-el, one carrying three kids, and Saul to the top of the house, saying, Up, that I another carrying three loaves of bread, and anomay send thee away. And Saul arose, and they ther carrying a bottle of wine: went out both of them, he and Samuel, abroad. 4 And they will w salute thee, and give thee

27 And as they were going down to the end two loaves of bread; which thou shalt receive of the city, Samuel said to Saul, Bid the servant of their hands. pass on before us, (and he passed on) but stand 5 After that thou shalt come to the hill of thou still " a while, that I may show thee the God, where is the garrison of the Philistines : word of God.

and it shall come to pass, when thou art come CHAPTER X.

thither to the city, that thou shalt meet a comSamuel anoints Saul captain of the Lord's interitance, 1. Instruct himn concerning pany of prophets coming down from the high company of prophes the sprit of the Lora cornes upon him, and he propterea place, with a psaltery, and

a tabret, and a pipe, among chembe snesis his uncle, and convenient to brinn, 14-16 came and a harp, before them ; * and they shall proas their king, 17--19.

Lots are case to find out the proper person to be appointed phesy :
Saul goes to Gilbeab; und certain perwas refuse to acknowledge thee, and · thou shalt prophesy with them, ana

6 And the Spirit of the LORD will come upon
TARA poured it upon his head, Pand
THEN ·Samuel took a vial of oil, shalt be turned into another man.

7 And a let it be, when these signs are come

kung; Saul ia choren, 20.-21. Samuel shows the manner of the king, and writes it in a book, 25.

him as king, 26, 27. An. Exod. Isr. 396.

Anno ante 1. Olymp. 319.

* Lev. 7. 32, 33. Frek. 24. 4.- Or, reserved. --m Deut. 22. 8. 2 Sam. 11. 2. Acts 10 9.-n Heb to-day- Chap. 9. 16. & 16. 13. 2 Kings 9. 3, 6.-- Psalm 2 12

Acts 13. 21.-- Deut. 32. 9. Paa 78. 71.-- Gen. 35. 19, 20.- Josh. 18. 28. --a Heb. the business. -- Gen. 29. 22 & 36. 1, 3, 7.

w Heb. ask thee of peace : as Judges 18. 15.--» Verse 10.--y Chap. 13. 3.--2 Chap. 9. 12.--a Exod. 15. 20. 21. 2 Kinga 3. 15. I Cor. 14. 1.-b Nuinb. Il 25. Ch. 16 i c Verse 10. Chap. 19. 23, 24-d Heb. it shall come to paar, that when these signs, &c.-e Exod. 1. & Lake 2. 12.

Verse 22. Brought them into the parlour) It might as playing on instruments of music, mentioned in the sacwell be called kitchen ; it was the place where they sat ceeding verses. down to feast.

Verse 3. Three men going up to God to Beth-el] JaVerse 23. Said unto the cook] no tabach, here rendered cob's altar was probably there still, Gen. xxviii. 19. Howcook; the singular of ninso tabachoth, female cooks, chap. ever this might be, it was still considered, as its name vii. 13. from the root tabach, to slay, or bulcher. Proba- implies, the house of God; and to it they were now going bly, the butcher is here meant.

to offer sacrifice. Verse 24. The shoulder, and that which was upon it] The three kids were for sacrifice; the three loaves of Probably the shoulder was covered with a part of the caul, bread to be offered probably as a thank-offering; and the that it might be the better roasted. The Targum has it, tottle, or skin full of wine, for a libation. When the blood the shoulder and its thigh ; not only the shoulder merely, was poured out before the Lord, then they feasted on the but the fore-leg bone, to the knee: perhaps, the whole flesh, and on the bread; and probably had a sufficiency fore-quarter. Why was the shoulder set before Saul ? of the wine left for their own drinking. Not because it was the best part, but because it was an Verse 4. And they will salute thee) oises 75 anos de emblem of the government to which he was now called. shaalu leca leshalom, "And they will inquire of thee conSee Isaiah, ch. ix. 6. And the government shall be upon cerning peace," i. e. welfare. In the East

, if this salutahis shoulder.

tion be given, then the person or persons giving it may be Verse 25. Upon the top of the house.) All the houses in reckoned friends; if the others' return it, then there is the East were flat-roofed; on these people walked, talked, friendship on both sides. Salaam alicum, Peace to you ! and frequently slept, for the sake of fresh and cooling air. is the mode of compellation: Alicum essalaam, To you

Verse 26. Called Saul to the top of the house] Saul had be peace; is the return. If you give the former, and reno doubt slept there all night; and now, being the break ceive not the latter, you may expect hostility. The meanof day, "Samuel called to Saul on the top of the house, ing of the prophet is, when you come to the plain of Tabor, saying, Up, that I may send thee away." There was no ye shall meet three men ; you need not be afraid of them, calling him to the house-top a second time; he was sleep- for they are friends: and they will show this friendship, ing there, and Samuel called him up.

not only by bidding you good speed, but by giving you Verse 27. As they were going dowon] So it appears that two loaves of bread, a provision which you will need for Saul arose immediately; and Samuel accompanied him the remaining part of your journey. out of the town, and sent the servant on, that he might Verse 5. The hill of God] The Targum says, "The show Saul the word, the counsel or design, of the Lord. hill on which the ark of the Lord was.” Calmet supposes What this was, we shall see in the following chapter. it to be a height near Gibeah. NOTES ON CHAPTER X.

The garrison of the Philistines) Probably they kept a Verse 1. Took a vial of oil] The reasons of this rite watch on the top of this hill; with a company of soldiers the reader will find largely stated in the note on Exod. to keep the country in check. xxix. 7. The anointing mentioned here took place in the A company of prophets) A company of scribes, says open field. See the preceding chapter, ver. 26, 27. How the Targum. Probably, the scholars of the prophets ; for simple was the ancient ceremony of consecrating a king the prophets seem to have been the only accredited teachers, A prophet, or priest, poured oil upon his head, and kissed at particular times, in Israel: and, at this time, there does him; and said, Thus the Lord hath anointed thee to be not appear to have been any other prophet besides Samuel caplain over his inheritance. This was the whole of the in this quarter. Probably, the teacher of this school was ceremony. Even in this anointing, Saul is not acknow- not an inspired man, but one acting under the direction of ledged as king; but simply 73 nagid, a caplain, one Samuel. "Mr. Harmer thinks that the following custom who goes before, and leads the people.

among the Mohammedang greatly illustrates this obscure Verse 2. "Rachel's sepulchre] This was nigh to Beth- place : "When the children have gone through the Koran, lehem. See Gen. xxv. 16.

their relations borrow a fine horse, and furniture, and At Zezah] If this be the name of a place, nothing is carry them about the town in procession, with the book known of it.

in their hand, the rest of their companions following, and The Hebrew ngla bitseltsach, is translated by the Sep- all sorts of music of the country going before. Dr. Shaw, tuagint, allquerovs Meyala, dancing greatly: now this in page 195, mentions the same custom; adding, the acclamay refer to the joy they felt and expressed on finding the mations of their school-felloros, but taking no notice of the assés; or, it may refer to those religious exultations, or | music. We have no reason, however, to doubt the fact on

anto thee, that thou do as occasion serve thee: to offer burnt-offerings, and to sacrifice sacrifices for & God is with thee.

of peace-offerings: i seven days shalt thou tarry, 8 And thou shalt go down before me h to Gil- till I come to thee, and show thee what thou gal; and, behold, I will come down unto thee, shalt do. f Heb. do for thee as thine hand shall find. Jodg. 9. 33.

8 Judg. 6. 12.-h Ch. 11. 14, 15. & 13. 4.–1 Ch. 13. & account of the doctor's silence; especially, as it relates to Israel, designed to teach him that the Most High alone is another part of Barbary, and is given us by those who the fountain of power; and that, by him only, kings could resided some years in that country. The doctor makes no reign so as to execute justice properly, and be his ministers use of this circumstance relating to the education of youth for good to the people. To accomplish this gracious purin Barbary; but the account of the procession, above pose, he gave him another heart, (ver. 9.) a disposition given, seems to be a lively comment on that ancient Jew- iotally different from what he had ever before possessed ; ish custom mentioned in these verses. That the words and taught him to pray. prophet often signifies sons, or scholars, of the prophets ; Coming among the sons of the prophets, on whom the and that prophesying often implies singing, has been Spirit of the Lord rested, and who were under the instrucalready remarked : but no author, that I know of, has tion of Samuel, (chap. xix. 20.) while they worshipped given any account of the nature of this procession, or its God with music and supplication, Saul also was made a design. We are sometimes told that high places were used partaker of the same divine influence, and prophesied ; i. e. for sacrifices; and, in one case, music, it is certain, played made prayer and supplication among them. To see one before them when they went up to worship, Isa. xxx. 29. who did not belong to the prophetic school thus incorpoBut did they not also return from sacrifice with it? We rated with the prophets, pouring out his soul in prayer and are told that music was used by the prophets, to calm supplication, was an unusual sight, which could not pass and compose them, and to invite the divine influences ; unnoticed, especially by those of Saul's acquaintance who which is indeed very true: but is it to the purpose ? Did probably knew him, in times past, to have been as careless they go forth in this manner from their college into the and as ungodly as themselves; (for it was only now he got noise and interruptions of the world, to call down the that other good spirit from God, a sufficient proof that he prophetic impulse ? But if we consider them as a company had it not before.) These companions of his, being unacof the sons of the prophets, going in procession with songs quainted with that grace which can, in a moment, influof praise, and music playing before them, and recollect ence and change the heart

, would, according to an invariathat it is usual in this day for young scholars to go in pro ble custom, express their astonishment with a sneer: Is cession with acclamations and music, the whole mystery Saul also among the prophets ? That is, in modern lanseems to be unravelled. To which may be added, that guage, 'Can this man pray, or preach? He whose educaSaul was to meet them, and find himself turned into ano tion has been the same as our own; employed in the same ther man; into a man, perhaps, who is instantaneously secular offices; and formerly companion with us in what made as knowing in the law of God, as the youth to whom he now affects to call folly and sin! Can such a person be the above honours were doing, or any of his convoy; among the prophets !-Yes, for God may bave given him which acquaintance with the law of God was very neces a new heart; and the Spirit of God, whose inspiration sary for one who was to judge among his brethren as their alone can give sound understanding in sacred things, may king. For this reason the Jewish kings were to write out have come upon him for this very purpose, that he might a copy of the law of God, and read it continually, that announce unto you the righteousness of the Lord; and they might be perfect masters of it, Deut. xvii

. 18, 20. speak unto your ruined souls, to edification, and to cxhorwhich accomplishment some youth had gained whom Saul tation, and to comfort. met with, and who was honoured with the solemnity the “The history of Elijah, and the priests of Baal, mensacred historian speaks of, if the custom of South Barbary tioned in 1 Kings xviii. throws farther light on this subject. may be supposed to be explanatory of those of Judea." In ver. 26. it is said, They, (the priests of Baal,) took &

On the word prophet, and the general account given bullock, and dressed it, and called on the name of Baal here, I shall introduce the following illustrations from from morning to noon, saying, O Baal, hear us! And they another work:

leaped upon the altar, and cried aloud, and cut themselves “The word prophet generally conveys the idea of a per- with knives, till the blood gushed out; and they propheson so far acquainted with futurity as to discern some pur- sied, (??n" vayithnabeu, and they made supplication) pose of the Divine Being, relative to his government of the until the time of the evening sacrifice.' From the whole natural and moral world; but which is not sufficiently context it is plain that earnest importunate prayer is alone matured by the economy of providence to make, as yet, its what is meant by prophesying in this text. See also 1 public appearance among men: and, to prophesy, is usually Cor. xiv. 3. understood to imply the foretelling such an event, the time “And as all the prophets of God, whose principal busiof its appearance, and the place of its operation; with some ness it was to instruct the people in the way of righteouspreceding and subsequent circumstances. But that this ness, were men of prayer, who were continually interwas the original and only meaning of the word prophet, ceding with God in behalf of those to whom they minisof prophesy, is very far from being clear. The first place tered, the term na nabi, became their proper appellative; the word occurs is in Gen. xx. 7. where the Lord says of and thus a part of their office, intercessors for the people, Abraham to Abimelech, He is a prophet, (N97 Nnabihu,) might have given rise to that name by which the Spirit of and will pray (Sony yilhpallel, will make earnest inter- God thought proper, in aftertimes, to distinguish those cession). for thee. In the common acceptation of the word, whom he sent not only to pray for, and instruct the people it is certain Abraham was no prophet; but here it seems but also to predict those future events, which concerned to signify

a man well acquainted with the Supreme Being, the punishment of the incorrigible, and the comfort and ex. capable of teaching others in divine things, and especially altation of his own servants." See a Sermon which I a man of prayer; one who had great influence with the have printed on 1 Cor. xvi. 3. entitled, “The Christian God he worshipped, and whose intercessions were availa- Prophet and his Work," and see the note on Gen. xx. 7. ble in the behalf of others. And in this sense the original À psaltery] 523 nebel. As the word signifies in other word na nabi, is used in several places in the Old Testa- places a bottle, or flagon, it was probably something like

the utricularius tibia, or BAG-PIPE. It often occurs both ". It was through inattention to this meaning of the word, with the Greeks and Romans, and was evidently borrowed which appears to me to be the true, original, and ideal one, from the Hebrews. that all the commentators and critics, that I have met with, A tabret) an toph ; a sort of drum, or cymbal. have been so sadly puzzled with that part of the history of A pipe) Sism chalil, from yn chal, to make a hole, or Saul, which is related 1 Sam. x. 9–13. and xix. 20–24. opening; a sort of pipe, flute, hautboy, clarionet, or the In these passages the sacred historian represents Saul, who like. was neither a prophet nor the son of one, associating with A harp) 1999 kinnor; a stringed instrument, similar to the prophets, and prophesying among them; to which he our harp; or that on the model of which the harp was was led by the Spiril of the Lord which came upon him. formed.' 'On these different instruments I shall have occa

That this can mean no more here than prayer and sup-sion to speak more at large when I come to the Psalms. plication to God, accompanied probably with edifying Verse 7. Thou do as occasion serre thee) After God hymns of praise and thanksgiving, (for they had instru- has shown thee all these signs, that thou art under his ments of music, ch. x. 5.) needs, in my opinion, little especial guidance, fear not to undertake any thing that beproof. If Saul had prophesied in the common acceptation longs to thy office, for God is with thee. of the word, it is not likely that we should have been kept What a number of circumstances thus precisely foretold! absolutely in the dark concerning the subject and design Does not this prove that Samuel was under the continual of his predictions; of which, by the way, not one syllable inspiration of the Almighty? is spoken in the oracles of God. The simple fact seems to Verse 8. Seven days shalt thou tarry] I will come to have been this: God, who had chosen this man to govern 1 thee within seven days, offer sacrifices, receive directions

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