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negotiation is deemed prima facie to have been effected before the instrument was overdue.

See note to $ 3082.

$ 3127. Place of indorsement. Except where the contrary appears, every indorsement is presumed prima facie to have been made at the place where the instrument is dated.

See note to § 3082.

$ 3128.

Continuation. An instrument negotiable in its origin continues to be negotiable until it has been restrictively indorsed or discharged by payment or otherwise.

See note to $ 3082.

§ 3129. Striking out indorsement. The holder may at any time strike out any indorsement which is not necessary to his title. The indorser whose indorsement is struck out, and all indorsers subsequent to him, are thereby relieved from liability on the instrument.

See note to $ 3082.

$3130. Transfer without indorsement. Where the holder of an instrument payable to his order transfers it for value without indorsing it, the transfer vests in the transferee such title as the transferrer had therein, and the transferee acquires, in addition, the right to have the indorsement of the transferrer. But for the purpose of determining whether the transferee is a holder in due course, the negotiation takes effect as of the time when the indorsement is actually made.

See note to $ 3082.

$ 3131. Prior party may negotiate. Where an instrument is negotiated back to a prior party such party may, subject to the provisions of this title, reissue and further negotiate the same. But he is not entitled to enforce payment thereof against any intervening party to whom he was personally liable.

See note to $ 3082.

ARTICLE IV.

Rights of the Holder.
§ 3132. Right of holder to sue; payment.
§ 3133. What constitutes a holder in due course.
§ 3134. When person not deemed holder in due course.
$ 3135. Notice before full amount paid.
8 3136. When title defective.
$ 3137. What constitutes notice of defect.
§ 3138. Rights of holder in due course.
§ 3139. When subject to original defenses.
§ 3140. Who deemed holder in due course.

§ 3132. Right to sue. The holder of a negotiable instrument may sue thereon in his own name and payment to him in due course discharges the instrument.

See note' to $ 3082.

$ 3133. Holder in due course. A holder in due course is a holder who has taken the instrument under the following conditions:

(1) That it is complete and regular upon its face;

(2) That he became the holder of it before it was overdue, and without notice that it had been previously dishonored, if such was the fact;

(3) That he took it in good faith and for value;

(4) That at the time it was negotiated to him he had no notice of any infirmity in the instrument or defect in the title of the person negotiating it.

See note to 8 3082.

§ 3134.

Not holder in due course. Where an instrument payable on demand is negotiated an unreasonable length of time after its issue, the holder is not deemed a holder in due course.

See note to § 3082. $ 3135. Notice before full amount paid. Where the transferee receives notice of any infirmity in the instrument or defect in the title of the person negotiating the same before he has paid the full amount agreed to be paid therefor, he will be deemed a holder in due course only to the extent of the amount theretofore paid by him.

See note to $ 3082.

$ 3136. When title defective. The title of a person who negotiates an instrument is defective within the meaning of this title when he obtained the instrument, or any signature

thereto, by fraud, duress, or force and fear, or other unlawful means, or for an illegal consideration, or when he negotiates it in breach of faith, or under such circumstances as amount to a fraud.

See note to $ 3082.

§ 3137. Notice of defect. To constitute notice of an infirmity in the instrument or defect in the title of the person negotiating the same, the person to whom it is negotiated must have had actual knowledge of the infirmity or defect, or knowledge of such facts that his action in taking the instrument amounted to bad faith.

See note to $ 3082.

$ 3138. Rights of holder in due course. A holder in due course holds the instrument free from any defect of title of prior parties, and free from defenses available to prior parties among themselves, and may enforce payment of the instrument for the full amount thereof against all parties liable thereon.

See note to § 3082. $ 3139. When subject to original. In the hands of any holder other than a holder in due course, a negotiable instrument is subject to the same defenses as if it were non-negotiable. But a holder who derives his title through a holder in due course, and who is not himself a party .to any fraud or illegality affecting the instrument, has all the rights of such former holder in respect of all parties prior to the latter.

See note to $ 3082.

$ 3140. Who deemed holder in due course. Every holder is deemed prima facie to be a holder in due course; but when it is shown that the title of any person who has negotiated, the instrument was defective, the burden is on the holder to prove that he or some person under whom he claims acquired the title as holder in due course. But the last-mentioned rule does not apply in favor of a party who became bound on the instrument prior to the acquisition of such defective title.

See note to 8 3082.

ARTICLE V.

Liabilities of Parties. § 3141. Liability of maker, $ 3142. Liability of drawer. § 3143. Liability of acceptor. $ 3144. When person deemed indorser. § 3145. Liability of irregular indorser. $ 3146. Warranty where negotiation by delivery, etc. $ 3147. Liability of general indorser. § 3148. Liability of indorser where paper negotiable by delivery. § 3149. Order in which indorsers are liable. § 3150. Liability of an agent or broker. § 3141. Liability of maker. The maker of a negotiable instrument by making it engages that he will pay it according to its tenor, and admits the existence of the payee and his then capacity to indorse.

See note to § 3082.

§ 3142. Liability of drawer. The drawer by drawing the instrument admits the existence of the payee and his then capacity to indorse; and engages that on due presentment the instrument will be accepted or paid, or both, according to its tenor, and that if it be dishonored, and the necessary proceedings on dishonor be duly taken, he will pay the amount thereof to the holder, or to any subsequent indorser who may be compelled to pay it. But the drawer may insert in the instrument an express stipulation negativing or limiting his own liability to the holder.

See note to $ 3082.

§ 3143. Liability of acceptor. The acceptor by accepting the instrument engages that he will pay it according to the tenor of his acceptance; and admits

(1) The existence of the drawer, the genuineness of his sig. nature, and his capacity and authority to draw the instrument; and

(2) The existence of the payee and his then capacity to indorse.

See note to $ 3082.

$ 3144. Person deemed indorser. A person placing his sig. nature upon an instrument otherwise than as maker, drawer, or acceptor, is deemed to be an indorser, unless he clearly indicates by appropriate words his intention to be bound in some other capacity.

See note to $ 3082.

$ 3145. Liability of irregular indorser. Where a person, not otherwise a party to an instrument, places thereon his signature in blank before delivery he is liable as indorser, in accordance with the following rules:

(1) If the instrument is payable to the order of a third person, he is liable to the payee and to all subsequent parties.

(2) If the instrument is payable to the order of the maker or drawer, or is payable to bearer, he is liable to all parties subsequent to the maker or drawer.

(3) If he signs for the accommodation of the payee, he is liable to all parties subsequent to the payee.

See note to § 3082.

$ 3146. Warranty when negotiation by delivery, etc. Every person negotiating an instrument by delivery or by a qualified indorsement, warrants

(1) That the instrument is genuine and in all respects what it purports to be;

(2) That he has a good title to it;
(3) That all prior parties had capacity to contract;

(4) That he has no knowledge of any fact which would impair the validity of the instrument or render it valueless.

But when the negotiation is by delivery only, the warranty extends in favor of no holder other than the immediate transferee.

The provisions of subdivision three of this section do not apply to persons negotiating public or corporation securities, other than bills and notes.

See note to $ 3082.

$ 3147. Liability of general indorser. Every indorser who indorses without qualification, warrants to all subsequent holders in due course

(1) The matters and things mentioned in subdivision one, two and three of the next preceding section; and

(2) That the instrument is at the time of his indorsement valid and subsisting.

And, in addition, he engages that on due presentment, it shall be accepted or paid, or both, as the case may be, according to its tenor, and that if it be dishonored, and the necessary proceedings on dishonor be duly taken, he will pay the amount thereof to the holder, or to any subsequent indorser who may be compelled to pay it.

See note to $ 3082,

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