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time and place of the hearing may be changed for good cause, by the Judge, upon motion of either complainant or respondent.

(b) Appearances. The parties may appear in person or by counsel or by other representative. Persons who appear as counsel or in a representative capacity must conform to the standards of ethical conduct required of practitioners before the courts of the United States.

(c) Order of Proceeding. Except as otherwise may be agreed by the parties and approved by the Judge, the complainant shall proceed first at the hearing.

(d) Failure to Appear. If respondent, after being duly notified, fails to appear at the hearing, and no good cause for such failure is established, complainant shall present a prime facie case on the matters denied in the answer.

(e) Evidence. (1) The testimony of witnesses at the hearing shall be upon oath or affirmation, reported verbatim, and subject to cross-examination. Evidence which is immaterial, irrelevant, or unduly repetitious, or which is not of the sort upon which responsible persons are accustomed to rely, shall be excluded insofar as practicable.

(2) Objections. If a party objects to the admission of any evidence or to the limitation of the scope of any examination or cross-examination, he shall briefly state the grounds of such objections, whereupon an automatic exception will follow if the objection is overruled by the Judge. The ruling of the Judge on any objection shall be part of the transcript. Only objections made before the Judge may subsequently be relied upon in the proceeding.

(3) Official Records or Documents. An official record or document, if admissible for any purpose, shall be admissible in evidence without the production of the person who made or prepared the same, and shall be prima facie evidence of the relevant facts stated therein. Such record or document shall be evidenced by an official publication thereof, or by a copy certified by a person having legal authority to make such certification.

(4) Exhibits. Unless the Judge finds that the furnishing of multiple copies is impracticable, four copies of each exhibit shall be filed with the Judge unless the Judge finds that a greater or lesser number is desirable. A true copy of an exhibit may be substituted for the original.

(5) Official Notice. Official notice shall be taken of such matters as are judicially noticed by the courts of the United States and of any other matter of technical, scientific, or commercial fact of established character: Provided, That the opposing party shall be given adequate opportunity to show that such facts are erroneously noticed.

(6) Offer of Proof. Whenever evidence is deleted from the record, the party offering such evidence may make an offer of proof, which shall be included in the transcript. The offer of proof shall consist of a brief statement describing the evidence cluded. If the evidence consists of a brief oral statement or of an exhibit, it shall be inserted into the transcript in toto. In such event, it shall be considered a part of the transcript and record if the Judicial Officer decides that the Judge's ruling in excluding the evidence was erroneous and prejudicial. The Judge shall not allow the insertion of such excluded evidence in toto if the taking of such evidence will consume considerable time at the hearing. In the latter event, if the Judicial Officer decides that the Judge's ruling excluding the evidence was both prejudicial and erroneous, the hearing may be reopened to permit the taking of such evidence.

(7) Affidavits. Affidavits may be submitted into evidence, in lieu of witness testimony, only to the extent, and in the manner agreed upon by the parties.

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8 1.169 Post-hearing procedure and deci

sion. (a) Corrections to Transcript. (1) At any time, but not later than the time fixed for filing proposed findings of fact, conclusions and order, or briefs, as the case may be, any party may file a motion proposing corrections to the transcript.

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(2) Unless a party files such motion in the manner prescribed, the transcript shall be presumed, except for obvious typographical errors, to be a true, correct, and complete transcript of the testimony given at the hearing and to contain an accurate description or reference to all exhibits received in evidence and made part of the hearing record.

(3) At any time prior to the filing of the Judge's decision and after consideration of any objections filed as to the transcript, the Judge may issue an order making any corrections in the transcript which the Judge finds are warranted, which corrections shall be entered onto the original transcript by the Hearing Clerk (without obscurring the original text).

(b) Proposed Findings of Fact, Conclusions, Order and Briefs. The parties may file with the Hearing Clerk proposed findings of fact, conclusions and orders based solely upon the record and on matters subject to official notice, and briefs in support thereof. The Judge shall announce at the hearing a definite period of time within which these documents may be filed.

(c) Judge's Decision. The Judge, within a reasonable time after the termination of the period allowed for the filing of proposed findings of fact, conclusions and order, and briefs in support thereof, shall prepare, upon the basis of the record and matters officially noticed, and shall file with the Hearing Clerk, the Judge's decision, a copy of which shall be served by the Hearing Clerk upon each of the parties. Such decision shall become final and effective without further proceedings 35 days after the date of service thereof upon the respondent, unless there is an appeal to the Judicial Officer by a party to the proceeding pursuant to $ 1.170: Provided, That no decision shall be final for purposes of a request for Judicial Review, as provided in $ 1.175(a) herein, except a final decision of the Judicial Officer on appeal. $ 1.170 Appeal to the Judicial Officer.

(a) Filing of Petition. Within 30 days after receiving service of the Judge's decision, a party who disagrees with the decision, or any part thereof, or

any ruling by the Judge or any alleged deprivation of rights, may appeal such decision to the Judicial Officer by filing an appeal petition with the Hearing Clerk. As provided § 1.167(e)(2), objections regarding evidence or a limitation regarding examination or cross-examination or other ruling made before the Judge may be relied upon in an appeal. Each issue set forth in the petition, and the arguments thereon, shall be separately numbered; shall be plainly and concisely stated; and shall contain detailed citations to the record, statutes, regulations or authorities being relied upon in support thereof. A brief may be filed in support of the appeal simultaneously with the petition.

(b) Response to Appeal Petition. Within 20 days after the service of a copy of an appeal petition and any brief in support thereof, filed by a party to the proceeding, any other party may file with the Hearing Clerk a response in support of or in opposition to the appeal and in such response any relevant issue, not presented in the appeal petition, may be raised.

(c) Transmittal of Record. Whenever an appeal of a Judge's decision is filed and a response thereto has been filed or time for filing a response has expired, the Hearing Clerk shall transmit to the Judicial Officer the record of the proceeding. Such record shall include: the pleadings; motions and requests filed and rulings thereon; the transcript of the testimony taken at the hearing, together with the exhibits filed in connection therewith; any documents or papers filed in connection with a prehearing conference; such proposed findings of fact, conclusions, and orders, and briefs in support thereof, as may have been filed in connection with the proceeding; the Judge's decision; such exceptions, statements of objections and briefs in support thereof as may have been filed in the proceeding; and the appeal petition, and such briefs in support thereof and responses thereto as may have been filed in the proceeding.

(d) Oral Argument. A party bringing an appeal may request, within the prescribed time for filing such appeal, an opportunity for oral arguments before the proper forum. A final order issued by the Judicial Officer shall be filed with the Hearing Clerk. Such order may be regarded by the respondent as final for purposes of a request for judicial review as provided in § 1.175(a) herein.

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$ 1.171. Intervention.

Intervention under these rules shall not be allowed, except that, in the discretion of the Judicial Officer, or the Judge, any person showing a substantial interest in the outcome of the proceeding shall be permitted to participate in oral or written argument pursuant to $$ 1.169 and 1.170 herein.

the Judicial Officer. Within the time allowed for filing a response, appellee may file a request in writing for opportunity for such an oral argument. Failure to make such request in writing, within the prescribed time period, shall be deemed a waiver of oral argument. The Judicial Officer may grant, refuse, or limit any request for oral argument. Oral argument shall not be transcribed unless so ordered in advance by the Judicial Officer for good cause shown upon request of a party or upon the Judicial Officer's own motion.

(e) Scope of Argument. Argument to be heard on appeal, whether oral or on brief, shall be limited to the issues raised in the appeal or in the response to the appeal, except that if the Judicial Officer determines that additional issues should be argued, the parties shall be given reasonable notice of such determination, so as to permit preparation of adequate arguments on all issues to be argued.

(f) Notice of Argument; Postponement. The Hearing Clerk shall advise all parties of the time and place at which oral argument will be heard. A request for postponement of the argument must be made by motion filed a reasonable amount of time in advance of the date fixed for argument.

(g) Order of Argument. The appellant is entitled to open and conclude the argument.

(h) Submission on Briefs. By agreement of the parties, an appeal may be submitted for decision on the briefs, but the Judicial Officer may direct that the appeal be argued orally.

(i) Decision of the Judicial Officer on Appeal. As soon as practicable after the receipt of the record from the Hearing Clerk, or, in case oral argument was had, as soon as practicable thereafter, the Judicial Officer, upon the basis of and after due consideration of the record and any matter of which official notice is taken, shall rule on the appeal. If the Judicial Officer decides that no change or modification of the Judge's decision is warranted, the Judicial Officer may adopt the Judge's decision as the final order in the proceeding, preserving any right of the party bringing the appeal to seek judicial review of such decision in

§ 1.172 Motions and requests.

(a) General. All motions and requests shall be filed with the Hearing Clerk, and shall be served upon the parties, except those made on record during the oral hearing. The Judge shall rule upon all motions and requests filed or made prior to the filing of the certification of the transcript. Thereafter, the Judicial Officer will rule on any motions or requests.

(b) Motions Entertained. Any motion will be entertained except a motion to dismiss on the pleadings. All motions and requests concerning the complaint must be made within the time allowed for filing an answer.

(c) Contents. All written motions and requests shall state the particular order, ruling, or action desired and the grounds therefor.

(d) Response to Motions in Request. Within ten days after service of any written motion or request, or within such shorter or longer period as may be fixed by the Judge or the Judicial Officer the opposing party may file a response to the motion or request.

(e) Certification to the Judicial Officer. The submission or certification of any motionrequest, objection, or other question to the Judicial Officer prior to the time when the Judge's certification of the transcript is filed with the Hearing Clerk, shall be made by and in the discretion of the Judge. The Judge may either rule upon or certify the motion, request, objection, or other question to the Judicial Officer, but not both.

$ 1.173 Judges.

(a) Assignment. No Judge shall be assigned to serve in any proceeding who (1) has any pecuniary interest in any matter or business involved in the proceeding, (2) is related within the third degree by blood or marriage to any party to the proceeding, or (3) has participated in the investigation preceding the institution of the proceeding or in determination that it should be instituted or in the preparation of the moving paper or in the development of the evidence to be introduced therein.

(b) Disqualification of Judge. (1) Any party to the proceeding may, by motion made to the Judge, request that the Judge disqualify himself and withdraw from the proceeding. Such motion shall set forth with particularity the alleged disqualification. The Judge may then either rule upon or certify the motion to the Judicial Officer, but not both.

(2) A Judge will withdraw from any proceeding in which he deems himself disqualified for any reason.

(c) Conduct. At no stage of the proceeding between its institution and the issuance of the final decision shall the Judicial Officer or the Judge discuss ex parte the merits of the proceeding with any person who is connected with the proceeding as an advocate or in an investigative capacity, or with any representative of such person: Provided, That procedural matters shall not be included within the limitation: and Provided further, That the Judicial Officer of Judge may discuss the merits of the case with such a person if all parties to the proceeding, or their representatives, have been given an opportunity to be present. Any memorandum or other communication addressed to the Judicial Officer or a Judge, during the pendency of the proceeding, and relating to the merits thereof, by or on behalf of any party or any interested person, shall be filed with the Hearing Clerk. A copy thereof shall be served upon the parties to the proceeding, and, in the discretion of the Judge or the Judicial Officer, opportunity may be given to file a reply thereto within a specified period.

(d) Powers. Subject to review by the Judicial Officer as provided elsewhere

in this part, the Judge, in any proceeding assigned to him shall have power to:

(1) Rule upon motions and requests;

(2) Set the time and place of any requested formal pre-hearing conference, adjourn the hearing from time to time, and change the time and place of hearing;

(3) Administer oaths and affirmations;

(4) Examine witnesses and receive relevant evidence;

(5) Admit or exclude evidence;

(6) Hear oral argument on facts or law;

(7) Do all acts and take all measures necessary for the orderly presentation of evidence, maintenance of order, and the efficient conduct of the proceeding.

(e) Who May Act in the Absence of the Judge. In case of the absence of the Judge or upon his inability to act, the powers and duties to be performed by him under these Rules of Practice in connection with a proceeding assigned to him may, without abatement of the proceeding, be assigned to any other Judge.

8 1.174 Filing; service; extensions of time;

and computation of time. (a) Filing; Number of Copies. Except as otherwise provided by the Judge or the Secretary, all documents or papers required or authorized by the rules in this part to be filed with the Hearing Clerk shall be filed in quadruplicate: Provided, That, where there are parties to the proceeding in addition to complainant and respondent, an additional copy shall be filed for each such additional party. Any document or paper, required or authorized under the rules in this part to be filed with the Hearing Clerk, shall, during the course of an oral hearing, be filed with the Judge.

(b) Service; Proof of Service. Copies of all such documents or papers required or authorized by the rules in this part to be filed with the Hearing Clerk, shall be served upon the parties by the Hearing Clerk, or by some other employee of the Department, or by a U.S. Marshal or his Deputy. Service shall be made either (1) by deliver

(d) Effective Date of Filing. Any document or paper required or authorized under the rules in this part to be filed shall be deemed to be filed at the time when it reaches the Department of Agriculture in Washington, D.C.; or, if authorized to be filed with an officer or employee of the Department at any place outside the District of Columbia, it shall be deemed to be filed at the time when it reaches the office of such officer or employee.

(e) Computation of Time. Saturdays, Sundays and Federal holidays shall be included in computing the time allowed for the filing of any document or paper: Provided, That when such time expires on a Saturday, Sunday or Federal holiday, such period shall be extended to include the next following business day.

ing a copy of the document or paper to the individual to be served or to a member of the partnership to be served, or to the president, secretary, or other executive officer or any director of the corporation or association to be served, or to the attorney or agent of record of such individual, partnership, corporation, organization, or association; or (2) by leaving a copy of the document or paper at the principal office or place of business or residence of such individual, partnership, corporation, organization, or association, or of his or its attorney or agent of record and mailing by regular mail another copy to each person at such address; or (3) by registering or certifying and mailing a copy of the document or paper, addressed to such individual, partnership, corporation, organization, or association, or to his or its attorney or agent of record, at his or its last known residence or principal office or place of business: Provided, That if the registered or certified document or paper is returned undelivered because the addressee refused or failed to accept delivery, the document or paper shall be served by remailing it by regular mail. Proof of service hereunder shall be made by the certification of the person who actually made the service: Provided, That if the service be made by mail, as outlined in paragraph (b)(3) of this section proof of service shall be made by the return post office receipt, in the case of registered or certified mail, or by the certificate of the person who mailed the matter by regular mail. The certificate and post office receipt contemplated herein shall be filed with the Hearing Clerk, and the fact of filing thereof shall be noted in the record of the proceeding.

(c) Extension of Time. The time for the filing of any document or paper required or authorized under the rules in this part to be filed may be extended by the Judge prior to the filing of the certification of the transcript if there is good reason for the extension. In all instances in which time permits, notice of the request for extension of the time shall be given to the other party with opportunity to submit views concerning the request.

8 1.175 Procedure following entry of cease

and desist order. (a) Request for Judicial Review. An association subject to a cease and desist order may, within thirty days following the date of the order, request the Secretary to institute proceedings for judicial review of the order. Such request shall, to the extent practicable, identify findings of fact, conclusions of law, and any part of the order which the association claims are in error. The Secretary shall, thereupon, file in the district in the judicial district in which such association has its principal place of business, a certified copy of the order and of all records in the proceeding, including the request of the association, together with a petition asking that the order be affirmed and enforced.

(b) Enforcement. If an association subject to a cease and desist order fails or neglects, within thirty days of the date of the order, or at any time thereafter, to obey such order, and has not made a request for judicial review as provided above, the Secretary shall file in the district court in the judicial district in which such association has its principal place of business a certified copy of the order and of all records in the proceeding, together with a petition asking that the order be enforced.

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