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About ten o'clock in the morning the sky was peculiarly clear, and Reaumur's thermometer stood at twenty-one degrees, when, by the spectators observing the line of battle formed in front of the camp, two images were distinctly seen. The false image seemed of not more than half the brightness of the other, but was nevertheless perfectly well defined. It appeared elevated by about a quarter of the actual height of the objects themselves, and declined slightly to one side. The same refraction was observed with respect to detached individuals. Many of the Algerine tents which had fallen into the hands of the French, had on their summits spheres of tin supporting the crescent. Over each of these spheres a second in immediate contact with i lie first was perceived, and so strong was the deception, that it required a very nice observation to discover that there were not actually two. Whenever a south wind blows in the vicinity of Algiers, its effect upon the temperature of the air is violent and immediate. On the 17th of September, Reaumur's thermometer rose to thirty-nine degrees in the shade; the heat was then like that of a furnace, and both men and animals experienced great difficulty inbreathing. Captain Boissel, who directed the works in the suburb of Babazon, remarked that persons in a state of intoxication, fell senseless. Those who were but half intoxicated, resisted for some time longer, but finally fell in their turn ; while such as had but slightly indulged, experienced violent pains in the head, and were compelled to assume a sitting posture. Fortunately this wind never continues for more than twenty-four hours in succession, or it would be productive of very serious injury. In the climate of Algiers storms are of rare occurrence, yet in the course of 1830 several were experienced. On the evening of the 8th of September, the sky towards the south was heavily charged with the electric fluid, the whole horizon appeared on fire, and the thunder rolled without intermission. At this time, above the flag-staves within the city of Algiers, as well as upon the neighbouring forts, a strong pale light was observed, which continued for half an hour. Several officers, who were walking upon the terrace of the fort of Babazon, were astonished to perceive the hairs on each other's heads to sland erect, and bright scintillations issuing from them. Upon raising their hands towards their heads the same luminous appearance was seen above the fingers, which disappeared when their hands were again lowered. During the whole time the storm lasted, nervous affections, together with a lassitude of the whole frame, and particularly of the legs, were universally experienced.
At the Academy of Sciences, also, M. Majendie has delivered a verbal report of his visit to Sunderland. In addition to the circumstances stated in his letter from that place, he said that the most striking phenomenon of the Cholera is the almost total stoppage of the circulation of the blood, the action of the heart being reduced to not more than ten or twelve pulsations in a minute. To this he attributed the black or blue appearance of the extremities, and the imminent danger of placing the patient in an upright position, which not unfrequently produced instant death, as thereby the passage of the blood to the head is rendered extremely difficult. This effect is the same in both sexes and at every age. The principal cause of the extensive ravages of the disease he supposed to be the horrible state of poverty of the lower orders. "There are," he said, "three parishes in Sunderland, two being situated on the heights, and the third in a damp position on the borders of a river. The two former contain upwards of 800 spacious houses, in which all the comfort that civilization can suggest, or affluence procure, is to be found, and consequently scarcely a single case has occurred in them; but in the lower town, occupied by 17,000 inhabitants, of whom 14,000 are in a state of pauperism, and the objects of parochial relief, the ravages have been carried to the extent recorded in the public prints." This part of Sunderland he described as consisting of nothing but an assemblage of alleys, scarcely four feet wide, each room in which rarely exceeds ten feet square, containing a whole family huddled together day and night, and the walls of which are rendered black by the smoke of the coal fires with which they there cook their scanty meals, the whole forming a picture of wretchedness, filth, and poverty, which, accustomed as he has been from his professional duties to visit the abodes of human misery, he could not have believed to exist in any part of civilized Europe. The evil, he stated, was increased by.the atrocious practice of farming out the poor; though, indeed, the poor-house was even worse than these private dwellings, hundreds of paupers of both sexes being crowded within it, and annually subject to the attacks of typhus and scarlet fevers and the measles. M. Majendie lamented that the popular prejudice against dissection was so great, that the faculty had not been able to obtain permission to open the body of a single person who had died of the Cholera. He expressed satisfaction at the liberal assistance and attention he had received from his professional brethren both in London and Sunderland, lie also approved of the judicious conduct of the British Government in refraining from all rigorous measures for preventing communication by land; and as to the quarantine adopted for the vessels, it was, he said, merely nominal, as the ships were stationed at not more than twenty or thirty feet from the land, and the crews had every facility of going ashore at night. Slight, however, as this restraint is, it has cansed snch a stagnation of business in the
port of Sunderland, that hundreds have been thrown out of employ ; and new causes of poverty having resulted, the number of cases of Cholera has been augmented. M. Majendie considers that the fatal effect of this disease has been considerably augmented by the precautions taken on the continent to prevent its progress.
Population of Great Britain.—The population returns have been just printed by order of Parliament. From the summary of this document we find that the population of England was, in 1801, 8,331,434; in 1811, 9,538,827; being an increase of 14| percent. In 1821, 11,261,437, being an increase of 171 per cent.; and in 1831, 13,089.339—an increase of 16 per cent. The increase within the last thirty years has been 4,757,904. The summary of the annual value of real property in hngland was 49.744,622*. ; in Wales, 2,158,8011.; and in Scotland, 6,652,655/., making a total of 58,551,078*. The population of Wales stands thus: in 1801, 541.546; in 1811, 611,788; in 1821, 717,438 ; and in 1831, 805,236. That of Scotland as follows: in 1801, 1,599,068; in 1811, 1,805,688; in 1821, 2.093,456; and in 1831,2,365,807. The snmmarvof Great Britain is as follows: In 1801, 10,942,646 ; in 1811, 12,609,864, being an increase of 154; percent.; in 1821, 14,391,631, an increase of 14 per cent.; and in 1831, 16,537,398, an increase of 15 percent. In 1801 the number of females in Great Britain was 5,492,356; in 1811, 6,269,650, an increase of 14-15 per cent.; in 1821, 7,254,613, an increase of 15-71 percent.; and in 1831, 8,375,780, an increase of 15-45 per cent. The population of London (that is the metropolis) was in 1801, 864,845; in 1811, 1,009,546; in 1821, 1,220,694 ; and in 1831, 1,474,069; males, 684,441 ; females, 789,628.
The new Coal Act.— The new coal act came into operation on the 1st of January. It is enacted after that day that no quantity less than 560lbs. of coals are to be sold without being weighed by the vendor, under the penalty of any sum not exceeding 51. A weighing-machine is to be kept at all the station-houses and watch-houses, provided by the overseers of the different parishes, who are to keep them in proper repair, under a penalty of any sum hot exceeding 101. Dealers selling one sort of coal for another are liable to a penalty of 101. Carmen are to weigh coals if required. If there is a deficiency in the weight, the penalty is any sum not exceeding 101. If the difference of weight should exceed 224lbs.,
Feb.—voi. xxxvi. No. Cxxxiv.
then the penalty is any sum not exceeding 50/. A weighing-machine is to be carried in all carts or waggons. If any carman drive the coals away without weighing them, if required by the purchaser, the penalty is 201. and not less than 51. Penalties incurred by carmen may be recovered of their employers. Magistrates may proceed by summons for the recovery of penalties. Magistrates may summon witnesses to give evidence, if thought necessary, and they are liable to a penalty of 251. for non-attendance. Magistrates have the power, on conviction, to give any of the penalty to the informer, not exceeding one-half, as they may think fit. Parties convicted before any magistrate have the right of appeal to the quarter sessions.
Hackney Coach Act.—The chief benefit that the public will at once derive from the reformed law (which has just come into operation) is in the reduction and simplification of the fares. The additional 6d. charged on every two completed miles sets all calculation at defiance, when reckoning one fare for a course comprehending two or three separate known distances. An ingenious person has demonstrated that ha could go a certain distance cheaper by hiring two vehicles than continuing to employ one! Nothing could be more absurd than such a mode of charging; the rate should have been less rather than more, for the coach lost no time in standing, as between different short fares: the advantage was wholly in favour of the driver. The charge, however, will be by the mile, as before— namely, 1j. for the first, or any distance less than a mile, and 6d. for every half mile beyond; but the additional 6<1. on every two miles completed is by the new law abolished: and the charge by the hour will be Is. for the first half hour, and lid. for every fifteen minutes completed, or any fractional part of fifteen minutes throughout the whole course; there will, therefore, be a considerable saving to the public on all fares above two miles, or one hour. All one-horse carriages are only entitled to twothirds of those rates. The option of going by the mile or the hour remains with the driver; but it is very likely to be transfened to die hirer by consent when the licences are unlimited. Fares « la minute are certainly preferable to those by the mile, as every one carries (or may carry) a timemeasurer in his pocket; but the distance by the mile is so difficult to hit exactly, when the hirer is required to go an irregular course, that dispute or extortion most frequently follows. The act also provides that no back-fare is to be demanded, for conveyance to any distance within three miles of the General Post Office.
Cholera.—The Central Board of Health has published the following important sanitary recommendations :—
"Whitehall, Jan. 10,16.12.—The Central Board of Health most earnestly exhort Magistrates, Overseers, and all the authorities of parishes in the North of England, to abstain as ninth as possible from the removal of paupcra, whenever their state of health is attended with suspicious circumstances. They further recommend, that the health of all paupers anil vagrants, who may come into any pari«h, may be most carefully attended to, and if any of tbem should be afflicted with symptoms of disease, that they may be lodged separately and supplied with medical attendants and every thing necessary. In cases of disease, it will be advisable also, that their bedding and clothes should be placed in an oven or stove, heated to 212 degrees of Fahrenheit, or immersed in boiling water, as the most »ili-cliiui means of disinfection, &c. 1 By order of the Board, "(Signed) W. Maci.kan, Secretary."
The National Debt.—The following has been publshed officially: —
"The Lords Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury having certified to the Commissioners for the Reduction of the National Debt, in pursuance or the Act 10 George IV. c. 27, s. I. that the actual expenditure of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland exceeded the actual revenue thereof for the year ending the 10th day of October, 1931, by the sum of 27,5.17/. 181. lid.
"The Commissioners for the Reduction of the National Debt hereby give notice, that no sum will be applied by them on account of the Sinking Fund, under the provisions of the said Act, between the 5th day of January, 1832, and the 5th day of April, 1832.
"S. Hicham, Comptroller-General."
"National Debt Office, Jan. 10, 1832."
Literature and Art.—By a Paper just issued by Mr. Bent, containing Lists of the New Books and principal Engravings published in London during the past year, it appears that the number of New Books is about 1100, exclusive of New Editions, Pamphlets, or Periodicals, being fifty less than in the year 1830. The number of Engravings is ninety-two (including fifty portraits,) eighteen of which are engraved in the line manner, fifty mezzotint, ten chalk, five lithograph, six aquatint, and three etchings. The number of Engravings published in 1830, was 107, (including forty-nine traits,) viz. twenty-three in line, fif'
mezzotint, ten chalk, four lithograph, and thirteen aquatint.
British Cottons.—It appears, from recent returns, that the weight of cotton wool imported in the year 1831, amounted to 263,000,000 lbs. 245,000,000 of which were spun; that the weight of sheep's wool imported was 20,000,000lbs., and native grown was about 160,000,0001bs. ; that the weight of all kinds of silk imported was 3,000,000llis.; and that the weight of flax is 120,000,0001bs.; and hemp imported is 60,000,000 lbs. Thus there is cotton wool used, 245 millions of lbs. ; sheep's wool, 180; silk, 3; flax, 120; hemp, 60 millions; the four last being 663 millions together, and the cotton alone 245 millions.
Press in India.—A Parliamentary paper has been published, containing the number of the periodical publications and printingpresses under the licence or sanction of the British Government at the several Presidencies :—Bengal—European publications in 1814. 1; 1820, 5; and 1830, 31 ; Native publications in 1814, not any; 1820, not any; 1830, 8. Fort St. George,— European, 1814, 5; 1820, 8; 1830, 8; Native, not any. Bombay, — European, 1814, 4; 1820, 4; 1830, 12; Native, 1814, not any; 1820, 2; 1830, 4. Bengal,—European printing-presses, 1830,5; Native printing-presses, 1830, 1. Fort St. George,—European, 1830, 2; Native, not any. Bombay,—European, 1830,6; Native, 2.
Fortifications of the Netherlands.—The following is the return of the total sums contributed by Gteat Britain for the erection of fortifications in the Netherlands, or towards the defence and incorporation of the Belgic provinces with Holland, in fulfilment of the additional articles of the convention between Great Britain and the Netherlands, dated the 13th of August 1814, showing the total amount contributed by Great Britain under each of the stipulations contained in the first of these articles:—
£ «. d.
1. Compensation to Sweden for rights in the colonies ceded
by that country . . . 1,000,000 0 0
2. Erections and repairs of fortifications In the Netherlands 1,£109,999 10 10
3. Russian loan raised In Hoiland; interest, 1,400,8707.18s.2d. linking fund, 337,929/. ft. 3d.
making 1,803,806 5 5
British army in the Netherlands and France, to the amount of 223,6691. 5s. 3d. for the erection of fortifications in the Netherlands; and a farther sum of 9,8001. 17s. 7d. has been paid by the Ordnance for the pay and allowances of the engineer officer employed in superintending the works on the part of Great Britain.
Bills of Mortality Christenings and
burials within the City of London and bills of mortality, from December 15th 1830, to December'! 3th 1831:—
whereof have died,
Under two >eari .... 7,811
Between two and five . 3,647
Five and tea 1,031
Ten and twenty 034
Twenty and thirty .... 1,640
Thirty and forty .... 1,068
Forty and fifty 2,175
Fifty and liaty 2,100
Sixty and seventy .... 2,237
Seventy and eighty .... 1,786
Eighty and ninety .... 825
Ninety and one hundred . . I'l
One hundred . . . . ■ 1
One hundred and one .... 1
One hundred and five ... 1
Increase in the burials reported this year, 3,692.
Public Income and Expenditure. — An account of the public Income and Expenditure for the years 1827, 8, 9, and 30, has been published by authority of Parliament. From this document, which goes fully into the details of the various branches connected with the subject, we have made the following selections :—
Customs and Excise in 1827 amounted to 39,932.6191. 3*. 84_d.; in 1828, to 41,727,779'. 12s. OJd.; in 1829, to 40.059,983/. 10j. 5d.; and in 1830, to 39,344,4821. 12s. 8d.
The Sumps were in 1827, 7,020,5061. 4s. 0i.d.; in 1828, 7,317,6091. 7s. 11 id.; in 1829, 7,285.9761. Is. 7Jd.; and in 1830, 7,248,0831. 14s. 6d.
Assessed and Land Taxes in 1827, 5,083.7141. 11». 0Jd.; in 1828, 5,162,8731. 9s. 8Jd.; in 1829, 5,206,3921. Is. 3d.; in 1830, 5,294,8701. 6s. lOJd.
Post Office in 1827, 2,190,3571. 3s. lOrf.; in 1828, 2,207,9981. Us. 5d.; in 1829, 2,184,6671. 2s. 4d.; in 1830, 2,212,2061. 5s. 64d.
1831, was, in Scotland, 27,500,000, and iu Ireland, 29,100,000 imperial gallons. Of the Scots spirits in the same period, 22,600,000 gallons were taken out on payment of duty, and 4,300,000 for exportation or ship stores. Of the Irish spirits, 27,000,000 were taken out on payment of
dutv, and 106,000 for exportation or ship stores. The amount of leakage on the 26,900,000 gallons of Scots spirits, was 119,000 gallons, or one 230 part. On 27,000.000 gallons Irish spirits, the leakage was 106,000.
Ancient Medal.— An interesting discovery was last year made in the Isle of Taman: the proprietor of an estate, living at the extremity of the Bay of that name, found, after a neavy rain, a small silver medal, presenting on one side the bust of Hercules, clothed with the lion's skin, and on the other, in a square let into the metal, the head of a horse, with the legend 2»3»». This valuable relic, beautifully executed, and in perfect preservation, is evidently connected with the Sindi, a tribe of the Caucasus, who, according to the ancient
feographers, inhabited the shores of the Hack Sea, and the most advanced mountains of the Caucasian ridge in the vicinity of Anapa. Many Greek colonies were established in the country of the Sindi, such as Gorgippia, Hermoniassa, &c. It was, probably, in one of those cities that the newly discovered medal was struck.
Efficacy of common Holly in Intermittent Fevers.—In one of our former numbers we mentioned, under our notice of the proceedings of the Academy of Sciences, a memoir of Dr. E. Rousseau, upon the efficacy of the leaves of the common holly (Ilex Aquifolium) in the treatment of intermittent fevers. This physician has just published his own observations upon the subject, as well as those which have been furnished by many individuals distinguished for hospital and private practice. All agree in acknowledging this indigenous plant to be a most powerful succedaneum for quinquina and sulphate of quinine. Many experiments, indeed, reported in this work, prove that holly may be jusly considered superior to the quinquine itself. We congratulate M. Housseau on having called attention to a means which frees the poorer class of society from the effects of the exorbitant monopoly of this exotic product. Holly may always be procured at a very trifling price: it is found in every district in France, and may be gathered and used at all seasons of the year with equal success. This benevolent physician has also succeeded, by his perseverance, in detaching its active principle from the holly, to which he has given the name of Uieine, a discovery which will be productive of very important results in medicine.
Instance of Longevity.—As one of the
most remarkable instances of longevity may be cited John Chiossick, who died at the advanced age of 117 years, in the receptacle for Invalids, at Murano, near Venice, May 22nd 1820. He was born at Vienna, and when only eight years of age entered as a fifer in the Austrian regiment of Stahrenberg. He fought under the Emperor Charles VI. against the Turks, in Hungary, during the reign of Maria Theresa, in 1741, against Prussia, against the French, in Bohemia, in 1742, and served, in 1744, in the wars of the Low Countries. At this period he quitted the Austrian army to enter into the service of the Republic of Venice, and was engaged in several naval expeditions, particularly in that against the Turks, commanded by General Emo. On the 1st of May 1797, he was admitted into the Receptacle for Invalids, at Murano, where he continued till his death. According to this account, John Chiossick continued for eighty-seven years in effective service; and if to these be added the twentythree years spent in his last retreat, 110 years of his life will lie found to have been spent in the capacity of a common soldier. This instance is unique in military history. The severe privations and fatigues which be necessarily experienced during his numerous services by sea and land, in no respect altered his good constitution, and he preserved to the last the cheerfulness of his disposition. Exempt from the influence of every violent passion, he was distinguished for great simplicity of manners and remarkable temperance. The father of this veteran reached his 105th year, and his paternal uncle lived to the age of 107.
Pompeii.—During the progress of the excavations in the Casa del Fanno, on the 24th of October last, a large painting in mosaic, of extraordinary beauty, was discovered. It is about 16 ft. 8 in. in width, and 8 ft. in height; and the human figures which it depicts are half the size of life. The King of Naples went to inspect it, in company with his sisters, and expressed himself in the highest degree delighted with the acquisition of so splendid a specimen of ancient art.
Egyptian Obelisk.—Letters from Luxor (in Egypt), of the 5th of Sept. state that a great number of labourers were employed in