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state his grievance. The consul will thereupon inquire into tue merits of the case, and do his utmost to arrange it amicably. In like manner, if a Chinese have reason to complain of a British subject, he shall no less listen to his comlaint, and endeavour to settle it in a friendly manner. If an English merchant irive occasion to address the Chinese authorities, he shall send such address through the consul, who will see that the language is becoming, and if other iw will direct it to be changed, or will refuse to convey the address. If unfortunately any disputes take place of such a nature that the consul canuot arrange them amicably, then he shall request the assistance of a Chinese officer, that they may together examine into the merits of the case, and decide it equitably. Regarding the punishment of English criminals, the English government will enact the laws necessary to attain that end, and the consul will be empowered to put them in force; and regarding the punishment of Chinese criminals, these will be tried and punished by their own laws, in the way provided for by the correspondence which took place at Nankin after the concluding of the peace.
14. British Government Cruisers anchoring within the Ports.—An English government cruiser will anchor within each of the five ports, that the consul may have the means of belter restraining sailors and others, and preventing disturbances. But these government cruisers are not to be put upon the same footing as merchant vessels, for as they bring no merchandise and do not come to trade, they will of course pay neither dues nor charges. The resident consul will keep the superintendent of customs duly informed of the arrival and departure of such government cruisers, that he may take his measures accordingly.
15. On the security to be given for British Merchant Vessels.—11 has hitherto been the custom, when an English vessel entered the port of Canton, that a Chinese Hong merchant stood security for her, and all duties and charges were paid through such security merchant. But these security merchants being now done away with it is understood that the British consul will henceforth be security for all British merchant ships entering any of the aforesaid Chinese ports.
It is hereby notified, that the new system of trade will commence at Canton on the 1st day of the 7th month of the Chinese year (the 27th of July, 1843), and that from that day the Hong merchants' monopoly and consoo charges will cease.
The other four ports of Amoy, Fuchow-foo, Ningpo, and Shanghai, which agreeably to the treaty of Nankin, are to be resorted to by British merchantvessels, cannot be declared to be opened for the purpose until an imperial edict to that effect shall be received from the cabinet of Pekin. The edict is expected to reach Canton early in the month of September, and immediately public notice will be given of its arrival. In the interim measures will be taken for the appointment of consulated officers, and their establishment to the ports in question, in order that no unnecessary delay may take place in the commencement of trade at them; and merchants may make their arrangements accordingly.
Currents Off The Cape.
Stockholm, 26th Aug., 1813. Sir.—In reference to your note at the bottom of p. 532, in your number for August last, in which you attempt to shew that, " the idea of a current almost alioays setting to the westward round Cape Lagulhas is erroneous, and has occasioned the loss of ships j" by quoting the case of the Northumberland, and others of recent date. I need only observe that, they should have known by their chronometers and soundings that they were sufficiently to the westward hefore hauling to the northward, and the current whether easterly or westerly, had nothing to do with the loss of these ships.
With reference to the log of the Unicorn, I have to observe that, on her passage out she ran to the eastward between the parallels of 39° and 40°, where the current is almost always running to the eastward, while on the bank off Lagulhas, between the Cape and the parallel of 37°, where the Unicorn found the westerly current on her passage home, the current is " almost always," that is, five out of six days running to the westward, at the same time that the easterly current prevails in the parallels of 39° and 40°, being the reason why outward bound ships give the Cape a wide berth, as also why they cross the bank of Lagulhas on the homeward passage, and for which reason a light-house ought certainly to be erected on the Cape; and I consider the log of the Unicorn to be only one of the many proofs I have had of the facts I have stated, namely, that the current, while running to the eastward between the parallels of 39° and 40°, is running " almost always" to the westward between Cape Lagulhas and the parallel of 37°, and no ship should haul to the northward until it is known by chronometer or soundings, that she is sufficiently to the westward. A light on Cape Lagulhas would be very useful to homeward bound ships, but would'seldom be seen by those outward bound, which had no occasion to call at the Cape.
I am, &c, To the Editor, $c. John Ross, Captain R.N.
The Indian Archipelago.
Celebes.—This island does not exactly come within the limits I have prescribed for myself in this memoir, but it is deserving of mention, owing to the prominent position it takes from its inhabitants being almost entire engrossers of the trade in all the islands eastward of Java, in which there are not European establishments. The peculiar form of this island renders it highly favorable for the residence of a maritime people, since, although containing only 50,000 square miles, it possesses a sea coast of 2,500 miles in extent, there being no part of the country distant more than thirteen leagues from the sea. The Dutch have two settlements on the island, Macassar on the south-west, and Menado on the north-east extreme; but the territories appertaining to these are not very extensive, the natives having successfully resisted the attempts of the Dutch to extend their authority over the entire island. The Bughis (as the inhabitants of the southern arms of Celebes are called,) are more addicted to maritime enterprise than those to the northward, from the southern portion of the island being better situated for intercourse with Singapore, and with the islands to the southward and eastward, than the northern. All the produce collected by them during their voyages among the eastern island is carried to our settlement at Singapore, where it is exchanged for calicoes, iron, muskets, gunpowder, and many othsr articles of British and Indian manufacture, these being the principal goods with which they purchase the produce of the more eastern islands. Nearly the entire male population of the Bughis countries are employed in trade, agriculture being so little attended to, that their supplies of rice and tobacco, and of the cotton employed in their manufacture, is derived from Bali and Lombok. While the men are away on their voyages, the women employ ENLARGED SEEIE3.—NO. 11. VOL. FOR 1843. 5 D
themselves in the manufacture of cloths, and variegated mate, which are highly prized throughout the Archipelago, these being almost the sole exports from the Bughis countries. Their prahus rately exceed in size 100 tons, as a great draught of water would prevent them from entering the small rivers on which their towns are situated.
The Bughis are much addicted to colonization; they have occupied the mouths of all the large rivers on the east coast of Borneo, and several of those on the south coast; they have also colonies on Sombewa and Flores or Mangerai, while there is scarcely a port in the Archipelago in which anything approaching to freedom of trade is permitted, where there are not many BughU established; individuals among them often possessing considerable wealth. Their settlements are formed upon the principles of the ancient Greek colonies. A chief, generally the brother or younger son of a Rajah, anxious to become an independent prince, fixes upon some spot adapted to the purpose, and removes thither with his dependents and their families, and with as many adventurers as he can induce to accompany him. The spot selected is generally the mouth of some river, by means of which the interior can be penetrated, and a commerce opened with the aborigines. The new colony does not acknowledge the authority of the mother country, but friendly relatious are generally maintained between them.
The Dutch settlement at Macassar is small and of little importance, except that it acts as a check on the commercial enterprise of the Macassars, who are even more Bkilfnl navigators than the Bughis. The trade of the eastern islands was once chiefly in their hands, but the prohibition on the importation of British calicoes at Macassar, together with the great discouragement given by the authorities to intercourse with Singapore, has enabled the Bughis successfully to rival them in all branches of the eastern trade, excepting that with the north coast of Australia, which being a fishery, and not requiring articles of European manufacture, the Macassars still retain. Several prahus from Macassar visit Singapore annually, but these dare not enter their own port on their return, and pass on to the eastward, visiting Macassar only when loaded with the produce of the eastern islands. The duties are high at Macassar, the most insignificant articles, even the salt fish brought from Port Essingtun, being taxed. Many Chinese reside at Macassar, all of whom occupy themselves as traders.
I need say nothing respecting the general character of the Macassars, as you have had many opportunities of witnessing their industry and good conduct during their annual visits to this settlement.
The Dutch settlement at Menado, on the north-east extreme of Celebes, although more recently formed, is of more importance than Macassar, the north coast being less favourably situated for commerce than the southern parts; more attention is paid by the natives to agriculture, and a large quantity of coffee is produced by them; this was formerly collected by small Dutch vessels from the Moluccas, and carried to Batavia, to which port only the large Dutch ships from Europe resorted. But within the last few years the Java government has altered its policy, the European ships being allowed to collect their own cargoes among the adjacent islands. Two or three ships of about 800 tons now annually collect cargoes on the north coast of Celebes, and proceed with it direct to Holland. The Dutch have succeeded in appropriating to themselves nearly the entire trade in coffee on this coast, only a small portion finding its way to Singapore.
The Badju Laut, a people living entirely on the water in prahus, congregate in great numbers on the coast of Celebes. With the westerly monsoon these spread themselves over the eastern seas in search of trcpang and tortoise-shell, extending their voyages to the north-west coast of Australia, about Cape Londonderry, and Admiralty Gulf; they occasionally visit the north coast also, but I have seen only one Badju prahu in Port Essingtnn. They carry several small light boats, from which they spear the turtle, which they also catch by means of nets. They appear to be an enterprising people, and are remarkably quiet in their manners.
Bali.—The island of Bali lies immediately to the eastward of Java, from which it is separated by a strait only three miles wide at its northern entrance. Bali is about 200 miles in circumference; a chain of mountains extends along the north coast, from five to twenty miles inland, terminating in the Peak of Bali; and another runs in the same direction (east and west), about twenty-five miles to the southward of the former; on these mountains are several extensive lakes, the waters of which are used for irrigation, rendering this one of the most fertile islands in the Indian Archipelago; the population is about 700,000. The Balinese have hitherto maintained their independence.
Bali is divided into eight states—of these, Badong on the southern extreme of the island, although one of the smallest, enjoys the most extensive commerce; this state consists of a peninsula, containing about 50 square miles, joined to the main by a low neck two miles wide, with about the same extent of territory on the main land. During the south-east monsoon ships anchor on the west side of this isthmus they lie here perfectly sheltered from the prevailing winds; but a long swell coming from the Indian Ocean often interrupts communication with the shore. During the westerly monsoon, ships lie on the other side of this isthmus, where they can haul into a very snug anchorage between two reefs. An European mercantile house, the head of which is an Englishman, is established here, and the trade is chiefly in its hands, although an agent of the Dutch Commercial Society also resides in the place. The chief portion of the produce of Badong, consisting of rice, coffee, and tobacco, is exported to Singapore, the return cargo being composed of European manufactures, opium and Chinese coin; an intercourse is also maintained with our Australian colonies and the Mauritius, by means of British vessels which export rice, coffee, Indian corn, cattle, and pigs; about 4,000 tons of rice are annually exported from Badong, a considerable portion of which is collected in small vessels from the other states; Badong is the only port in Bali frequented by European ships.
The ports next in importance to Badong are Bliling on the north, and Karang Assam on the east coast; these, together with many smaller ports on the north coast, are visited by many vessels belonging to Chinese of Java, for the purpose of obtaining rice, cotton, and tobacco; but the trade is principally in the hands of the Bughis, whose prahus swarm upon the coast, bringing goods direct from Singapore. A considerable quantity of coffee is carried to Singapore from the north coast of Bali, the greater portion of which is smuggled from the eastern districts of Java, where coffee is a government monopoly; the revenues of the native ports are generally farmed by Chinese, there being many traders of that nation on the island.
Although Banyu Wangi, the easternmost settlement of the Dutch on Java is only three or four miles distant from Bali, very little commercial intercourse exists between them. The cultivation of coffee in the eastern districts of Java has lately been greatly increased, the whole of the produce being claimed by the goverment at a fixed price. When I was at Banyu Wangi, in the early part of this year, three Dutch ships from Europe of 800 to 1,000 tons burthen, were lying there, taking in cargoes of coffee.
(To be Continued.)
The North-west Passage.
Maine of New Luce, by Glenluce, Nov. 23rd, 1840. Sir.—Having seen lately an extract from the Quarterly Review, concerning the practicability of the North-west Passage; and knowing that you have long taken a warm interest in that subject, I beg leave to inform you that, I was surgeon in a whale-fishing ship, the Lion of Liverpool, in the North Seas, between
Greenland and Spitsbergen, during the summers of 1799 and 1800; that m 1800 we found our ship in 81° 41* of N. latitude, and in 11° E. longitude of London. . , , ,
In this high latitude, we saw very little ice, after we passed the island ot Spitzbergen; and indeed, no ice of consequence to interrupt our «»ling DfTM|> as far as we could discern from the masthead; but seeing only few whales there, we turned back toward the south in search of them.
Our officers thought they could have easily carried the ship to the JNortn Pole; and they were fully persuaded that a communication exists between tie North Sea and the Pacific Ocean, (at Bherings Straits, or somewhere else,) from a steady current, which runs nearly from north-east to south-west; by which current the pieces of ice are closely packed together upon the coast ot Greenland, which makes it dangerous for ships to approach the said coast; and the same current opens up the ice, on the western coast of Spitzbergen. _
Should any further steps be taken in this matter, it would surely be desirable, both in a scientific and national view, to go to the North Pole itself; and withal, to sail along the west coast of Spitzbergen, which is in general safe, would be the nearest way of reaching the Pacific ocean, by Bherings Straits.
I have been clergyman in this parish of New Luce for upwards of thirty years; and, nothing could have induced me to trouble you on this subject, but a desire to promote the public good, and I hope you will excuse me.
You will be pleased to observe that, although we found the sea almost clear of ice where we made the observation, in the summer of 1800; it by no means follows that it should be always so, for the ice is shifted by winds, tides, and currents; and I may add, that the positions of pieces of ice are also affected by the power of attraction; and the reason that ice is in general formed first neat the land is, that the water is there smoother.
I have the honor, &c.
To Sir John Barrow. Wta. Mckeroo.
[• Sir Edward Parry reached 82° 35'.]
H.M.S. Samarang.—By accounts just received from Sir Edward Belcher we are happy to find that, the recent reports, respecting the loss of this ship, have been greatly exaggerated. It appears that the Samarang had arrived in the river Sarawak from Singapore, after considerable difficulty from the perfect inutility of the charts ; and Sir Edward having visited the Dyaks, antimony mines, gold washing, &c, was moving on to Borneo Proper, in compr-ny with Mr. Brooke, when in going down the river, unhappily the Samarang touched on the edge of a bank, fell over and filled. There was no doubt of the ship being recovered unhurt when the accounts left, but the inconvenience arising from the accident will be great, and losses heavy. It is, however, gratifying to find that the chronometers and most of the instruments, which we perceive have been valued in the public prints at £35,000, were landed without injury. It was expected when the accounts left that the ship would he afloat in three days.
(Continued from p. 627.)
London Docks, Oct.\2lh, 1843. Sir.—The enclosed was picked up by me in latitude 10° 25' N., and longitude 14° 45' W., near the river Broat, on the west coast of Africa, on the 28th of July, 1843.
I am, &c,
Thos. Flight, To the Editor, 4'c. Commander of Ike brig Nuntx.