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Time Ball at VALPARAISO-We perceive by a Valparaiso Mercury, which has been forwarded to us, that Mr. Mouat has established a Time Ball at his Observatory in the north-east angle of the Castle of St. Joseph, at Valparaiso, for the purpose of enabling vessels in the Bay to rate their chronometers. The time of its falling is not stated.
METEOROLOGICAL REGISTER. Kept at Croom's Hill, Greenwich, by Mr. W. Rogerson, of the Royal Observatory,
From the 21st of September, to the 20th of October, 1843.
SEPTEMBER.—Mean height of the Barometer =30-181 inches ; Mean temperature=61-5
degrees; depth of rain fallen=0.44 inches.
TO OUR FRIENDS AND CORRESPONDENTS, MR. Mount at Valparaiso, will oblige us by marking in the plan of that har. bour in our volume for last year, (p. 817,) the position of the Lighthouse.
Thanks to the COMMANDER OF THE Nunez for his attention,
Hunt, Printer, Carlisle-street, Maida-bill.
HYDROGRAPHICAL NOTES ON THE SOUTH-EAST COAST OF SPAIN.
By Lieut. (now Commander) G. H. P. White, R.N.
[We take this concise and useful information from the remarks of the Jaseur, while under the command of Lieutenant White, during the years 1834-5-6-7, and it is not without regret that we are prevented by the great expense attending it, from giving our readers the benefit of the no less useful than well executed views by which it is accompanied.]
Beating through the Straits with the wind at west.—This can be accomplished by any kind of vessel, line of battle ship included; the latter, however, should never attempt it except with a strong steady breeze, and at spring tides.
As it is high water both at Gibraltar, and also in the Straits,* at 2 P.M., at full and change, a vessel wishing to beat through, should contrive, if possible, to be off Cabrita Point by the last quarter ebb, and should she be a small vessel she should go inside the Pearl Rock, to enabled her to be abreast of Pigeon Island, immediately the flood commences. Should the wind be strong and steady, and the flood tide good she ought to get up to Tarifa in one tide, and there remain until the next to cross over to Tangier Bay, unless she goes a good slant from the northward. If she remain at Tarifa she must get under way at the last quarter ebb, and stretch over to Tangier, where she will meet the tide on the African shore, which will enable her to work round Cape Spartel, the tide being the same on the African as on the Spanish shore, and the former perfectly free from danger when to the westward of Tangier.
Should a ship not get up to Tarifa the first flood tide, she can always anchor on the Spanish coast; one of the best spots is off the tower of Gualmesi, about 44 miles from Tarifa where the ground is good; the
• Charts and Directions give an hour or two between the time of high-water at the rock and in the Straits, but after three years' experience we found them invariably to agree, at the same time remembering that the winds have considerable influ. ence in retarding or accelerating the time of high-water.
The Directory speaking of beating through the Straits with an easterly wind has the following remark:-" It follows that a vessel with an easterly wind may beat through the Straits into the Mediterranean, by keeping and tacking between the two boundaries of the central or eastern current." This is perfectly erroneous, for a vessel may tack in the central current with the wind blowing hard from the east for a month without getting an inch ahead. But, even under treble-reefed top-sails by keeping close under the Španish shore, and working with the ebb tide, she will as I have before remarked, most probably get into Gibraltar, if required, in a few tacks.
It is also asserted in the same book that, there is always less wind on the Barbary than on the Spanish shore. This is quite at variance with all experience. For there is an old adage used by the seamen in those parts, which saith, “That when there is half a gale of wind on the Spanish shore, there is a whole one on the Barbary side.” This we have experienced. The central current setting into the Mediterranean, sometimes after a long continuance of easterly winds sets to the westward; but this is a phenomenon which rarely occurs. Extraordinary changes also take place at times in the time of high water; I have known the flood tide run until five o'clock P.M. on the day of full moon, when it ought to have been high water at 2 P.M. These variations depend, there is little doubt, on the wind; but so irregular is their results that it is almost impossible to form any correct theory concerning these anomalies. ENLARGED SERIES. NO. 12.-VOL, FOR 1843.
land hereabout is high and precipitous with the tower above-mentioned on its summit. On its eastern side is a small cove, with a deep valley covered with orchards and gardens.
The anchorage in Tangier Bay, although very much exposed to east and north-east winds, with a heavy sea at times, is, however, perfectly safe, particularly when a vessel anchors well to the eastward, so as to be sheltered by Point Malabat. The best anchorage is Cape Malabat, E.b.N., N.; custom-house west. Ships should always moor in this bay during the winter months.
Beating from Tangier to Gibraltar, wind blowing hard from the eastward.-To perform this a ship should get under way at the last quarter flood, and stand across to Tarifa, or as far to the northward as the wind will allow ; by the time she has arrived off Tarifa, she will get the ebb tide, which, if strong, will more than likely, carry her into Gibraltar in three or four tacks. Remember when working, particularly to the westward, make very short tacks, keeping very close to the land on the inshore one.
When intending to anchor off the New Mole, with the wind at east, a ship should keep Europa Point, close on board, and be put under snug but commanding sail, as it will be necessary to have every thing to brace round at a moment's notice, taking especial care to keep as close to the rock as possible. If this be not attended to, it will be more than probable that she will be some hours beating about to gain the anchorage. Top-sails, jib, and spanker are the most convenient sails to be under, but it will greatly depend on the tide, for the flood sets from Europa to Cabrita, in fact sweeping the shores of the bay; therefore, if with a flood tide, it be possible to keep her head towards the Mole with fore and aft sails, particularly in a large ship, it would be advisable, as she would then drift into her anchorage without the disagreeable necessity of bracing round every minute to the flaws and puffs which are extremely violent with a strong Levanter. Should it be ebb tide on approaching Europa Point, and the wind at all to the northward of east, carry all convenient sail, working over on the western or Algeciras side of the bay, where the merchant vessels usually anchor, you may then shorten sail and run down under top-sails to the New Mole.
Bay of Tetuan.—A ship should never anchor here except with the wind at west, and directly it is inclined to come round to the eastward start immediately, for should it blow from that quarter a very heavy sea is thrown into the bay, and the wind from east seldom blows home; it therefore becomes often difficult to work off the shore. The ground is very bad, principally sand, which shifts bodily, with a hard Levanter. This is an excellent place to obtain provisions cheap; good water can also be procured here if required.
From Gibraltar to Malaga with the wind at west.--Start if possible at half flood, which will give you the whole of the ebb, which sets to the eastward, at the rate of two or three miles an hour. Steer direct for Frangerola Point,* not paying any attention to the course you may con
. With westerly winds, you will always find it calm or nearly so off Frangerola castle, never mind this, but keep close in. When nearly off Molinos Point, put the ship under easy sail, as you are certain when there to find the wind come off strong from the north-west.
ceive right by the chart, as the current invariably on the south-east Coast of Spain sets more or less off shore. With a westerly wind, you cannot round Frangerola and Molinos Points too closely. You may round Molinos within a mile and a half with perfect safety, when you will see Malaga light-house distinctly. From that point keep the lead going, as in winter months the sands at the mouth of the river Godo increase and extend considerably to the eastward. If it is intended to anchor outside the Mole come to well to the eastward of the light-house, if by night, this will always put you in a safe berth. By day anchor with the light-house and cathedral in one, for should you anchor to the westward of the light-house, the ground is not only bad but there is scarcely room to get under way. Should the wind come on to blow from the eastward this ought if possible to be done, although a vessel of war in all ordinary cases of wind may ride perfectly safe to the eastward of the light-house as here directed, as the ground is good, being stiff mud mixed with sand. If you know the port, particularly if there be a moon, run in to the Mole crossing the bar in 3 or 4 fathoms, taking good care to keep the Mole head well on board as the water suddenly runs shoal on the city side of the harbour.
The best way to moor within the Mole is either to let go small or best bower, according to the wind, run out nearly a whole cable, then let go the other bower and take it in as a stern cable, taking care while you are runing in to let go the anchors as parallel to the Mole as possible, as vessels are obliged to moor in tiers. You will thus have a bower ahead and another astern, which will be sufficient security for the summer months; but in the winter take especial care whatever may then be the state of the weather, to send the sheet cable on shore and shackle it to one of the large rings on the Mole; likewise lay out the stream anchor on the starboard quarter to protect you from the westerly winds. The easterly winds blow here with the greatest violence, and you cannot be too careful in securing your ship against them.
The port of Malaga is formed by an artificial mole of about half a mile in length, nearly at the extremity of which is a good lighthouse with a revolving light, and also a battery mounting eight pieces of brass ordnance. This Mole is still carrying further out.
All small vessels stationed on the south-east Coast of Spain, should have strong chocks fitted in their stern ports for the convenience of taking in cables or hawsers.
Good water can be had conveniently at Malaga by application to the Captain of the port.
Never attempt to land in a Spanish port without being first visited by the Pratique boat.
From Malaga to Gibraltar with a westerly wind. To perform this as expeditiously as possible, get under way a little before sunset when the land wind begins to draw off, and under easy sail as the wind generally blows hard off Molinos Point from north-west. The land wind will more than probable carry you round Frangerola,* when past that point, take good care to keep close in shore towards Marbella, as the
• In Frangerola Bay is good anchorage with westerly winds. Frangerola Point W.S.W., and a little to the northward of the castle.
wind during the night and generally early in the morning draws off the land; by so doing you will also get within thefinfluence of the tides. Should it be ebb when you get up to Europa Point, it would be hopeless except with a very steady wind to attempt to beat round, which is very seldom the case when the wind blows strong from the west, for then the eastern side of the rock, like the western during easterly winds, is subject to violent squalls and puffs of wind, which completely frustrate any attempt to get round. Put the ship therefore under easy sail and lay to off and on until the flood tide makes, when you will get round with perfect ease, and soon gain the New Mole.
Whenever a large ship, particularly a line of battle ship anchors off the New Mole, she should take especial care to anchor as much abreast of the Dock-yard as possible, that is, to the north-east of the New Mole. A ship lying here ought always to be moored, and her best bower should be let go well to the northward; for if the wind suddenly shifts round to east, in a sudden squall as it generally commences, she is very apt to drive, before a second anchor can be let go.
One or two line of battle ships, and other vessels have been nearly lost by 'not attending to this precaution. Remark (particularly in winter) when you are close in under the land waiting for the breeze coming off shore, which you are generally sure of getting, do not be tempted to make much sail, particularly studding-sails, as at times the wind comes off so strong, and so sudden, that it oftentimes becomes requisite to close reef the top-sails; if this be not attended to, a ship will be very likely to lose her top-masts at the least.
The land and sea breezes on this coast are pretty regular during the summer months, but in winter the land breeze is seldom strong except after a fine day.
From Malaga to Almeria. If you start with a fair and steady breeze, run down parallel to the shore keeping about five or six miles off the land or less during the day, as the coast is quite clear and bold until you arrive off Los Llaños or plains of Almeria, which in thick weather are dangerous being extremely low. On its south-west extremity is the Morro Point, where stands the Castle de Las Guardas Viejas or the Old Guard. From this Point the plains may be said to commence. Point Elena the eastern extremity is low and dangerous, and has a reef of rocks running out from it to the eastward. It ought not to be rounded nearer than a mile and a half, always taking care to keep the lead going, as the whole coast from it to Almeria is shoal.
The bay of Almeria is well protected from westerly winds by the high bluff points of Torrejon, on which is a small fort and a flagstaff. The best anchorage is in nine or ten fathoms close in under Torrejon, where you will lie as quiet as possible. The east wind throws in a heavy swell, but there is no fear of a vessel, she having good anchors and cables. Water can be obtained here, but with considerable difficulty, as there is generally a surf on the beach. Almeria was once a celebrated sea-port, but nothing but its dilapidated castle remains to attest its former glories under the Moorish rule.*
* We have here a vice-consul. The best time for getting into Almeria is from 10 3 in the afternoon, as during the heat of the day, the wind generally draws from the southward,