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Review— Lectures on Physiology, &c.

1770 thing as conception and parturition,- | brain, it must reside in it either as a would assert that the whole was a whole, or else in some particular part mere delusion, and altogether unne- of it. It does not reside in it as a cessary towards our existence. It is wbole, because large masses of the certain that before conception, neither brain have been destroyed and lost, brain, homunculus, nor ethereal es- without at all affecting the reason. sence, existed; but that after concep- Neither does it reside in any particular tion, some of them at least become part, because every individual portion inhabitants of the uterus. Now, we of the brain has, in successive instanask Mr. Lawrence, why the ethereal ces, been the seat of disease, which essence could not take up its abode in has terminated in its total destruction, its animal habitation at the moment --therefore it evidently follows from of conception, or at any subsequent such facts, as thought is not a funcperiod, and gradually increase in tion of the brain, either as a whole, or energy and perfection, as its habita- of any particular part, that it cannot tion became more developed, and be a function of it at all. adapted to the exercise of its func- But farther it appears, that the mind tions?

can influence this thought, arrest, nay Mr. Lawrence's last effort, while actually destroy the vital manifestaconsidering the functions of the brain, tions, and suspend the organic funcconsists in contrasting the mental tions, even of the brain itself. manifestations in man, with those in “ A letter is brought to a man, (says Mr. other animals; and he boldly asserts Kennell,) containing some afflicting 'intellithat they are not only analogous, but gence. He casts bis eyes upon the contents, in the ratio of their medullary deve- What is the cause of this sudden affection ?

or motion. lopment.

It may be said that the vessels have collapsed, We cannot deny,” he says, “ to animals, that the brain is consequently disordered, and all participation in rational endowments, with that loss of sense is the natural consequence. out shutting our eyes to the most obvious But let us take one step backward, and enfacts ;-to indications of reasoning, which the quire what is the cause of the disorder itself,

the effects of which are thus visible? It is unprejudiced observation of mankind has not failed to recognize and appreciate.

produced by a sheet of white paper, distin“ When the mules feel themselves in dan- guished by a few black marks.' But no one ger, they stop, turning their heads to the right would be absurd enough to suppose, that it and to the left; the motion of their ears seems

was the effect of the paper alone, or of the to indicate that they reflect on the decision characters inscribed upon it, unless those chathey ought to take,” p. 102.

racters conveyed some meaning to the under

standing. It is thought, then, which so sudMr. Lawrenee, we suppose, means denly agitates and disturbs the brain, and this as a compliment; and we feel makes its vessels to collapse. From this obliged that he did not go to the last circunstance alone, we discover the amazing

influence of thought upon the external organ; extremity, and make us asses at of that thought which we can neither hear, nor

Can he really be serious, when see, nor touch, which yet produces an affeche thus indirectly insinuates, that a tion of the brain fully equal to a blow, a presmule resembles man in intellectual sure, or any sensible injury. Now this very powers ? Such erroneous assertions

action of thought upon the brain, clearly shews acquire only importance by attempts mutual influence which they possess over each

that the brain does not produce it; while the at their refutation. Are aniinals capa- other, as clearly shews that there is a strong ble of improvement, or of making the connection between them. But it is carefully smallest advance in knowledge? Such to be remembered, that connection is not idenas was the first generation, such is the tity,” p. 94 and 95. present, and such will each succeed- Has Mr. Lawrence, in his physioloing one be, till the cessation of exist- gical researches, discovered any phe

Nor has any succeeding gene- nomenon of this kind among the inferation even profited—even benefited, rior animals, any which has been sudin the least, by the experience of that denly paralyzed by any melancholy which has preceded it. But reason is intelligence-the death of a dear an attribute by which we are capable friend or near relation-or which has of improvement, from the knowledge lost its small amount of understanding and experience of others. No one and become deranged under similar (not even Mr. Lawrence himself) will circumstances? We believe we may, be hardy enough to assert, that' ani- without fear of contradiction, answer mals possess any such faculty. In this question for him. He has not. fine, if thought be a function of the Here then we are confessedly present



ed with a wide difference-a most So far as regards these statements, marked distinction between theintel- we can only say, they are not fact. lect of map and brutes.

Their truth is not found to be corroMr. Lawrence asserts, that in al- borated by experience. Moral treatmost all cases of insanity, the struc- ment, in a very great proportion of ture of the brain is diseased.

cases, is found to be the only treat

ment serviceable ; and it is found in a “J have examined, after death, the heads great number of instances, that neiof many insane persons, and have hardly seen a single brain which did not exhibit obvious ther moral nor active medical mea. marks of disease; in recent cases, loaded ves- sures avail any thing. But this is not sels, increased serous secretions; in all in- generally the case with the diseases of stances of longer duration, unequivocal signs of other organs. It must be allowed, that present or past increased action; blood ves- the diseases of other organs are often sels apparently more numerous, membranes mistaken, and hence vigorous medical thickened and opaque, depositions of coagulable lymph, forming adhesions or adventitious treatment may often seem to be ineffimembranes; watery effusions, even abscesses : cacious; whereas, were it judiciously add to this, that the insune often become pa- selected, and rightly applied, it would ralytic, or are suddenly cut off by apoplexy.” probably prove beneficial. p. 105 and 106.

There is, moreover, one remarkable Mr. Lawrence's experience here peculiarity attending insanity, and differs from Hasland—“Of thirty- with which we shall now present our seven dissections, made at Bethlem readers. It is an extraordinary fact Hospital, the structure of the brain in the history of mania, that maniacs, was, in eleven cases, firmer than while confined, conduct themselves in usual; in six it was softer; and in the a perfectly rational way; and so comremaining twenty it was natural.” — pletely do they conceal the actual and See Quarterly Review, No. 22.

real state of their intellect, as to deBut taking it even aceording to Mr. ceive the most experienced and skilLawrence's own statement, the argu

ful medical practitioners; and thus ment will turn against himself. He succeed in removing those restraints admits that, sometimes the mental imposed on them by law: but no phenomena are disturbed without any sooner do they obtain their liberty, visible deviation from the healthy than they become guilty of every exstructure of the brain; as digestion or travagance. It will be found in many biliary secretion may be impaired or

cases of insanity, that the maniacs, altered, without any recognizable

while under coercion, act rationally, change of structure in the stomach or but when this is removed, they comliver. The brain, like other parts of mit every excess dependent on mental

Will Mr. Lawrence say, this complicated machine, may be infirmity. diseased sympathetically; and we see

that coercion restores and preserves it recover.”

the healthy structure of the brain, but As Mr. Lawrence has not defined that liberty disorganizes it again? functional disorder, we must leave These are facts, which, though they the reader to form his own judgment may fail in establishing an immaterial upon it; we will, however, take upon thinking essence, yet we think fully ourselves to assert, that Mr. Law- controvert Mr. Lawrence's hyporence never observed any derange

thesis. ment in the functions of a part, with

(To be concluded in our next.) out a similar or corresponding derangement, either of the vessels of the part or its nerves.

Review-A Spiritual Guardian for

Youth; being the substance of Šer“ The effect of medical treatment,” he ob- mons delivered at the early Morning serves, “completely corroborates these views.

Lecture, in the Summer of 1821, in Indeed, they who talk of, and believe in, diseases of the mind, are too wise to put their

Albion Chapel, Moorgate. i vol. trust in mental remedies. Arguments, syllo- By the Rev. Alex. Fletcher, Minister gisms, discourses, sermons, have never yet of the Scot's Secession Church. Lonrestored any patient; the moral pharmacopæia don: Ogles & Co. 1822. is quite inefficient, and no real benefit can be conferred, without vigorous medical treatment, which is as efficacious in these affec ) The title of this work, and the name tions as in the diseases of any other or

of the individual by whom it is writgans.”

ten, will, with many, be a sufficient 773

Review-Songs of Zion.


recommendation. Mr. Fletcher has | than the speculative notions of the long been known to the religious pub- greatest of philosophers—than the Jic as one of the best friends to the ardour inspired by party feeling in youth of this metropolis; and while theology or in politics ; in short, more we thank him for his exertions in the worthy of encouragement than all the cause of morality and religion, we other pursuits of men throughout the sincerely hope that those exertions wide expanse of the creation. will be abundantly rewarded, in a It will scarcely be necessary for us manner that will make him satisfied to enter into a long review or analysis that he has not“ laboured in vain, nor of this production. The subjects spent his strength for nought.” treated of are of the most important

We think that Mr. Fletcher is pecu- nature; and though many ideas have liarly fitted for the instruction of the already appeared in numerous instanrising generation. It has been a mat- ces (indeed we know not that they can ter of pleasure to us, to listen to some be too often repeated) yet the manner of his addresses to his youthful in which they are introduced cannot friends,-to observe the earnestness but command something more than and affection with which he laboured respect. The work is well calculated to impress upon their minds the im- to make young persons think upon portance of “the one thing needful,” their ways, and to produce a beneto mark his manner and style when ficial effect on their conduct; and we thus engaged, the best, we might most cordially recommend parents venture to say, it is possible for him and guardians to place it in the hands to choose ;)—and to see the effect his of those who are committed to their instructions have had upon his youth-care, being full of wholesome truths, ful auditory. This must be to him a and written in a manner that cannot source of pleasure, and must encou- fail to captivate the youthful heart. rage him to proceed in his labours; We cannot refrain from giving the for beloved as he is by the children last paragraph in the volume, as strikunder his care or tuition, especially in ingly exemplifying the truth of our his Sunday school, it is natural to remark, relating to the sincerity which suppose that the precepts he incul- shews itself throughout the work. It cates, will have their proper effect in would be next to impossible for an inleading them to that course of life, dividual to write it, who did not feel which it is his aim to impress upon all its force; and we almost fancy we their minds.

might have seen the tears rolling down Tbe work before us, we doubt not, the cheeks of this author while he was will be productive of as much benefit engaged in committing it to paper.to the class of persons for whom it is intended, as any which has come un-ing of the Father, the blessing of the Son, the

“ Farewell, my young friends! The blessder our observation for some months. blessing of the Spirit, one God, rest upon you! The style is simple and affecting, and I leave you with reluctance; may God never, marked throughout with that extreme never, never leave you, nor forsake you! As solicitude, so characteristic of its au- I have advanced, my anxiety for you bas thor. The object of the work is thus

increased. Like the dying father surrounded

by his offspring, I lay you down at mercy's concisely stated:

feet. Holy Spirit, may the eye of mercy look “ Satan it is who has rendered the writing

on these youths! may the heart of mercy pity

them! of this book necessary. He wishes you ruin,

may the arms of mercy encompass I wish you salvation. He has formed schemes

them. In the building of mercy may they to accomplish his wishes, and I have adopted dwell for ever, and the triumphs of mercy may measures to accomplish mine. It is his object they celebrate for ever, with songs of loudest, to conduct you to hell, it is mine to lead you

sweetest, praise! God the Father, Son, and to heaven ; it is his to degrade your immortal Spirit, hear my prayer : accept my offering ! natore, it is unine to exalt it; it is bis to con

Amen and Amen!” form you more completely to his own likeness, it is mine to conform you to the image of God; it is bis to entail upon you unceasing misery, Review-Songs of Zion ;-being Imitabut it is mine to confer upon you unfading tions of Psalms. By James Montbliss.”

gomery. Longman š Co.

London. Such is the avowed object of the pp. 153. 58. 1822. work; an object more worthy of encouragement than the mighty moving It is a heart-cheering and consolatory bodies of the mechanist or engineer- employment, to turn from the perusal

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of works, in which the highest intel- periment; and as the many disgracelectual endowments which the Al- ful doggrel compositions, which we mighty has conferred upon his crea- daily see, abundantly confirm. On tures, are perverted into weapons the other hand, there is scarcely any against the glory, attributes, and go-thing more difficult, even to a poet of vernment, of the Creator, to the con- ability, than to write a good hymn. templation of eminent talents, em- And it may be remarked, that, in some ployed and consecrated to the acknow- heroic poems, confessedly excellent, ledgment and service of God the giver. bymns, when introduced, are often There is a dignity, a superiority, a beneath the rest of the work in mysterious depth, and breadth, and poetical beauty and propriety, and height, of feeling in the most exalted especially in religious keeping. One order of the human intellect, which reason of this general want of success, too often leads its possessor to mistake we conceive to be, that in hymns, as the aspirations of gepius for the inspi- in epitaphs, the stores of obvious rations of religion; and to imagine, thought have been long ago exhaust. that feelings elicited by the external ed; so that to the genuine poet alone, phenomena of the works of creation, can any hope of originality or success and even the internal sympathies of possibly remain. the unrenewed heart, are the accept- There was a very general report able worship of the eternal God. It abroad some time since, that the most is an awful and lamentable fact, but eminent bards of this country were of every-day occurrence and experi- employed upon sacred poetry; we ence, that high intellectual acquisi- were gratified to hear this, because tions indispose their possessor to such a combination of splendid talent take up the cross, and confess the might have been expected to produce name of the Lord Jesus ; and the poet a system of psalmody commensurate especially, who, after having obtained with the wishes of those who admired the honours of this world, should ven- the perfected excellence of the poetry, ture to give this proof of the sincerity and the elevated standard of the taste, of his profession of the religion of a of the present times. crucified Redeemer, must expect to But, between the cold and factiencounter the sneers of the profane, tious compositions of a mind, which the contempt and derision of the could, with equal elegance and sinceproud, and the neglect and suspicion rity, address an ode to Jupiter, or a of the half-hearted in religion. With Christian hymn to Jesus, and the emathese things before him, so mortifying nations of an heart renewed in the Holy to the flesh, and so trying to the spi- Ghost, and devoutly breathing through rit, Mr. Montgomery, with talents of the measures of verse, the melody of the highest order in poetry, and a sincerity, and the aspirations of pername and reputation of the most ex-sonal holiness, there is, as there must alted class among the “living choir” ever be, not only a striking contrast, of Britain, has ventared to devote but an immeasurable lisparity in those talents, and connect that repu- genuine felicity of expression. It is tation and name, with a series of de- on this account that we hail, with the votional pieces, in imitation of the sincerest pleasure, the present little Psalms of David.

volume, from the pen of Mr. MontgoTo furnish appropriate language, in mery, and which we would fain only which sincere Christians may fitly ex- consider as a specimen, not, indeed, press their devotional feelings, their only of wbat he can do, but of what sorrows and enjoyments, their hopes he may be induced to perform. and their fears; in one word, their We are not unaware of the difficulty religious experience (to use a phrase of giving, what might, with propriety, grating to many ears,) is not only a be termed a version of the whole book praiseworthy, but an honourable, la- of Psalms: and we are equally perbour. To write some sort of verses on suaded of the inutility and inexpedia religious subject, string them toge- ency of any such attempt, as that of ther, and call it an hymn, is not rendering the complete subject of these attended with any considerable diffi- compositions into metre. But we are culty, as almost every serious Christ- exceedingly desirous that Mr. Montian can testify, from having, at one gomery, who unites to the finest time or other, probably made the ex-l strains of poetry, the warmest and

Anniversaries of Religious Institutions.

778 purest feelings of piety, should pro- | terms, or technical phrases, which ceed with this acceptable labour of seem to be appropriated almost exclulove.

sively as the vehicles of certain figAlthough many of the portions in ments of theological opinion. These this most delightful part of the word psalms contain, in the dress of an of God, are not at all adapted to ver- elegant, nervous, and pure English sification, nor indeed to general use, style, the doctrines of Christianity, hay been written on particular occa- not as held by any sect, exclusively, sions by their authors; yet as no scrip; but as professed in common by all who ture is of private interpretation and hold the head, Jesus Christ. They import, but is intended for the use will, therefore, we doubt not, be and edification of the church in all transplanted into different collections, ages, and as every psalm contains hereafter to be formed, as the taste of what may be emphatically termed a compilers may influence them in a subject, and as Mr. Montgomery's selection. They are also very properly genius scems peculiarly adapted to adapted to common and well-known seize and appropriate such subject to tunes; and as we know that the writer the inspirations of his muse, we doubt possesses a taste equally correct in not that every one of the psalms might music and poetry, we doubt not that, be usefully and appropriately imitat- in being sung, these compositions will od, or the spirit thereof transfused by discover the value of such an advanthis “ sweet singer," into songs, tage. adapted to the purposes and worship We shall conclude these remarks of the Christian and spiritual Zion. with the author's imitation of part of

To assert that these “ Songs of the 137th Psalm, which we consider Zion” were perfect, according to any as a fair specimen of the work, the given standard, would be high, but perusal of which we heartily recomindefinite praise, unless we could add, mend. that that standard might safely be assumed as a model of composition in

Where Babylon's broad rivers roll,

In exile we sat down to weep, this kind of writing. We think we For thonghts of Zion o'er our soul may safely assert that we have found Came, like departed joys, in sleep, in these pieces, what we look for, in

Whose forms to sad remembrance rise, vain, through most of the collections

Though fled for ever from our eyes. of bymns in use at the present day, Our harps upon the willows hung, confessedly excellent as some of those Where, worn with toil, our limbs reclin'd; collections undoubtedly are, and pre

The chords, untun’d and trembling, rung

With mournful music on the wind, eminently beautiful as many of the

While foes, insulting o'er our wrongs, single hymns contained in each are

Cried,“ Sing us one of Zion's songs." known to be. In most of these imita.

How can we sing the songs we love, tions by Montgomery, we discover a

Far from our own delightful land ? perfection which belongs alike to an

-If I prefer thee not above hymn and an epic poem-unity of sub- My chiefest joy, may this right hand, ject, comprehending in itself a begin- Jerusalem ! forget its skill, ning, a middle, and an end. And

My tongue be domb, my pulse be still. although to many readers, this rare excellence will be a matter of no importance, to many others it will be

BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. ibe criterion which distinguishes these

Songs” from the productions of the mere versifier, and shews them to be British and Foreign Philanthropic from the hand of a master.

Society. We do not think this volume will

On May 15th, 1822, a numerous and have a rapid sale at first, notwith highly respectable meeting was held standing the celebrity of its author : at the City of London Tavern, to conidle curiosity is not very highly excited sider some plan for the permanent to discover how much one great poet relief of the peasantry in Ireland, and excels another in the compositions of also that of the British agriculturists spiritual songs ; still less do we think and labouring mechanics. Among the it likely to supersede any other collec- methods proposed, no plan seemed to tion of hymns now in use, as a whole ; meet the views of those present with because it contains none of those set so much cordiality, as one proposed No. 43.-Vol. IV.

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