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and after it, we shall find every part of the sentence obvious and distinct.

That the nominative is more separable from the verb than the verb from the objective case, is plain from the propriety of pausing at self-love, and not at forsook, in the following example :

Self-love forsook the path it first pursued,
And found the private in the public good.

Pope's Essay on Man. The same may be observed of the last line of the fol lowing couplet:

Earth smiles around with boundless bounty blest,
And Heav'n beholds its image in his breast.


In these instances, though the melody invites to a pause at forsook and beholds, propriety requires it at self-love and Heaven.

RULE VI. Whatever member intervenes between the nominative case and the verb is of the nature of a parenthesis, and must be separated from both of them by a short pause.


I am told that many virtuous matrons, who formerly have been taught to believe that this artificial spotting of a face was unlawful, are now reconciled, by a zeal for their cause, to what they could not be prompted by a concern for their beauty. Addison's Spect. No. 81.

The member intervening between the nominative matrons, and the verb are, may be considered as incidental, and must therefore be separated from both.

When the Romans and Sabines were at war, and just upon the point of giving battle, the women, who were allied to both of them, interposed with so many tears and entreaties, that they prevented the mutual slaughter which threatened both parties, and united them together in a firm and lasting peace. Addison's Spect. No. 81.

Here the member intervening between the nominative case women, and the verb interposed, must be separated from both by a short pause.

RULE VII. Whatever member intervenes between the verb and the accusative case, is of the nature of a parenthesis, and must be separated from both by a short pause.


I knew a person who possessed the faculty of distinguishing flavours in so' great a perfection, that, after having tasted ten different kinds of tea, he would distinguish, without seeing the colour of it, the particular sort which was offered him. Addison's Spect. No. 409.

The member intervening between the verb distinguish, and the accusative the particular sort, must be separated from them by a short pause.

A man of a fine taste in writing will discern, after the same manner, not only the general beauties and imperfections of an author, but discover the several ways of thinking and expressing himself, which diversify him from all other authors. Addison, ibid.

The member intervening between the verb discern, and the ascusative not only the general beauties and imperfections of an author, must be separated from both by a short pause.

RULE VIII. Whatever words are put into the case absolute, must be separated from the rest by a pause.


If a man borrow aught of his neighbour, and it be hurt or die, the owner thereof not being with it, he shall surely make it good.

Here, the owner thereof not being with it, is the phrase called the ablative absolute, and this, like a parenthesis, must be separated from the rest of the sentence by a short pause or each side.

God, from the mount of Sinai, whose gray top
Shall tremble, he descending, will himself
In thunder, lightning, and loud trumpet's sound,
Ordain them laws.

Here, he descending, neither governs nor is governed by any other part of the sentence, and is said to be in the ablative absolute; and this independence must be marked by a short pause before and after the phrase.

RULE IX. If an adverb is placed after the verb, and consists but of one word, it must be separated from what follows by a pause.



He did not act prudently in one of the most important affairs of his life, and therefore could not expect to be happy.


RULE X. If the adverb consists of more words than one, or forms what is called an adverbial phrase, it ought to be separated both from the verb and what follows, by a pause.

Thus man is, by nature, directed to correct, in some measure, that distribution of things, which she herself would otherwise have made.

Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments.


RULE XI. Words or phrases in apposition, or when the latter only explains the former, have a short pause between them.

-Goddess of the lyre,

Which rules the accents of the moving spheres,

Wilt thou, eternal Harmony, descend
And join this festive train ?

RULE XII. When two substantives come together, and the latter, which is in the genitive case, consists

of several words closely united with each other, a pause is admissible between the two principal substantives.


We may observe, that any single circumstances of what we have formerly often raises up a whole scene of imagery, and awakens numberless ideas, that before slept in the imagination. Spectator, No. 417.


I do not know whether I am singular in my opinion, but for my own part, I would rather look upon a tree in all its luxuriancy, and diffusion of boughs and branches, than when it is cut and trimmed into a mathematical figure. Ibid. No 415.

Correct reading would admit of a pause in the first example at circumstance, and, in the last, rather at diffusion than at luxuriancy.

RULE XIII. Who and which, when relative pronouns, and that, when it stands for who and which, always admit of a pause before them.


A man can never be obliged to submit to any power, unless he can be satLocke. isfied, who is the person, who has a right to exercise it.

To which we may add, their want of judging abilities, and also their want of opportunity to apply such a serious consideration as may let them into the true goodness and evil of things, which are qualities, which seldom display themselves to the first view. South.

Vanity is the foundation of the most ridiculous and contemptible vices, the vices of affectation and common lying; follies which, if experience did not teach us how common they are, one should imagine the least spark of common sense would save us from. Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments.

The word which, in the last example, that ought to have a pause before it, has one after it; this latter pause is certainly proper, as a member intervenes between which and the governing words, and printers never fail placing this last pause, but almost as uniformly neglect a pause before the relative in this sit

uation, though the pause before will be acknowledged by every judicious ear to be as necessary in the one case as in the other. A pause before these relatives ought never to be omitted, as we are certain by this pause never to hurt the sense, and are sure to gain time, breath, and foresight to proceed. The uncertainty of printers in this essential pause may be guessed at, from the punctuation of a passage, which follows that, which I have just quoted.

The foolish liar, who endeavours to excite the admiration of the company by the relation of adventures which never had any existence, the important coxcomb, who gives himself airs of rank and distinction which he well knows he has no just pretensions to, are both of them no doubt pleased with the applause which they fancy they meet with. Ib. p. 192. In this passage we only see a pause before the first relative; but why that is distinguished it is not very easy to guess.

This rule is of greater extent than at first appears; for there are several words usually called adverbs, which include in them the power of the relative pronoun,* and will therefore admit of a pause before them: such as when, why, wherefore, how, where, whither, whether, whence, while, till, or until; for when is equivalent to the time at which; why or wherefore is equivalent to the reason for which; and so of the rest. It must, however, be noted, that when a preposition comes before one of these relatives, the pause is before the preposition; and that, if any of these words are the last word of the sentence, or clause of a sentence, no pause is admitted before them; as, I have read the book, of which I have heard so much commendation, but I know not the reason why. I have heard one of the books much commended, but I cannot tell which, &c. See Ward's English Grammar, 4to.

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