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sideration and revision, ordain and establish the following constitution, and form of civil government:
DECLARATION OF RIGHTS. That the great and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and established,
All men equal in rights.
inherent in the
Freedom of speech.
SECTION 1. That all men when they form a social compact, are equal in rights; and that no man or set of men are entitled to exclusive public emoluments or privileges from the commun
ity. Political power SEC. 2. That all political power is inherent in the people, people.
and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their benefit; and that they have at all times an undeniable and indefeasible right to alter their form of govern
ment in such a manner as they may think expedient. Freedom of re- SEC. 3. The exercise and enjoyment of religious profesligious worship.
sion and worship, without discrimination, shall forever be free to all persons in this state, provided that the right hereby declared and established, shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or to justify practices inconsistent with
the peace and safety of the state. No religious
Sec. 4. No preference shall be given by law to any Christian sect or mode of worship.
Sec. 5. Every citizen may freely speak, write and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the
abuse of that liberty. Liberty of
No law shall ever be passed to curtail or restrain the press. the liberty of speech or of the press.
Sec. 7. In all prosecutions or indictments for libels, the truth may be given in evidence, and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the facts, under the direction of the court.
SEC. 8. The people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers and possessions from unreasonable searches or seizures; and no warrant to search any place, or to seize any person or things, shall issue without describing them as nearly as may be,
nor without probable cause supported by oath or affirmation. Mode of criminal
SEC. 9. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall prosecutions.
have the right to be heard by himself and by counsel; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted by the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process to
speech and of
be taken with-
obtain witnesses in his favor; and in all prosecutions by indictment or information, a speedy public trial by an impartial jury. He shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, but by due process of law. And no person shall be holden to answer for any crime, the punishment of which may be death or imprisonment for life, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury; except in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war, or public danger.
SEC. 10. No person shall be arrested, detained or pun- Arrest, detention ished, except in cases clearly warranted by law.
Sec. 11. The property of no person shall be taken for pub- Property not to lic use, without just compensation therefor. Sec. 12. All courts shall be open, and every person,
for any injury done to him in his person, property or reputation, open to all. shall have remedy by due course of law, and right and justice administered without sale, denial or delay.
Sec. 13. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive Excessive bail. fines imposed.
SEC. 14. All prisoners shall, before conviction, be bailable Ball. by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses, where the proof is evident, or the presumption great; and the privileges of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in case of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it; nor in any case, but by the legislature.
SEC. 15. No person shall be attainted of treason or felony Legislature not by the legislature.
Sec. 16. The citizens have a right, in a peaceable manner, Right of citizens to assemble for their common good, and to apply to those invested with the powers of government, for redress of grievances, or other proper purposes, by petition, address or remonstrance.
Sec. 17. Every citizen has a right to bear arms in defense Right to bear of himself and the state.
SEC. 18. The military shall, in all cases, and at all times, Military in subbe in strict subordination to the civil power.
Sec. 19. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in Quartering of any house, without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Sec. 20. No hereditary emoluments, privileges, or honors, shall ever be granted, or conferred, in this state. SEC. 21. The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.
to attaint of treason.
ordination to civil power.
OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS. The powers
government shall be divided into three dis- Distribution of tinct departments, and each of them confided to a separate mag
istracy, to wit, those which are legislative, to one; those which are executive, to another; and those which are judicial, to another.
OF THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT.
Senate and House of Representatives.
Sessions of the
SECTION 1. The legislative power of this state shall be vested in two distinct houses or branches; the one to be styled The Senate, the other The House of Representatives, and both together The General Assembly. The style of their laws shall be: Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in
General Assembly convened:
SEC. 2. There shall be a stated session of the general asgeneral assembly.
sembly to be holden at Hartford biennially on the Wednesday following the first Monday of the January next succeeding the election of its members as now provided by law, and at such other times as the general assembly shall judge necessary; but the person administering the office of governor may, on special emergencies, convene the general assembly at said place at any other time. And in case of danger from the prevalence of contagious diseases, in said place, or other circumstances, the person administering the office of governor may, by proclamation, convene said assembly at any other place in this state.
Sec. 3. The house of representatives shall consist of electors residing in towns from which they are elected. Every town which now contains, or hereafter shall contain a population of five thousand, shall be entitled to send two representatives, and every other one shall be entitled to its present representation in the general assembly. The population of each town shall be determined by the enumeration made under the authority of the census of the United States, next before the election of representatives is held. In case a new town shall hereafter be incorporated, such new town shall not be entitled to a representative in the general assembly unless it has at least twenty-five hundred inhabitants, and unless the town from which the major portion of its territory is taken has also at least twenty-five hundred inhabitants; but until such towns shall each have at least twenty-five hundred inhabitants, such new town shall, for the purpose of representation in the general assembly, be attached to, and be deemed to be a part of, the town from which the major portion of its territory is taken, and it shall be an election district of such town for the purpose of representation in the house of representatives.
House of representatives; how composed.
Sec. 4. The senate shall be composed of not less than Senate ; how
composed. twenty-four and not more than thirty-six members, who shall be elected at the electors' meetings held biennially on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November.
Sec. 5. The number of senatorial districts shall not be Senatorial disless than twenty-four nor more than thirty-six, and each district shall elect only one senator. The districts shall always be composed of contiguous territory, and in forming them regard shall be had to population in the several districts, that the same may be as nearly equal as possible under the limitations of this section. Neither the whole or a part of one county shall be joined to the whole or a part of another county to form a district, and no town shall be divided, unless for the purpose of forming more than one district wholly within such town, and each county shall have at least one senator. The districts, as established by the general assembly of 1903, shall continue the same until the session of the general assembly next after the completion of the next census of the United States, which general assembly shall have power to alter the same, if found necessary to preserve a proper equality of population in each district, but only in accordance with the principles above recited; after which said districts shall not be altered, nor the number of senators altered, except at a session of the general assembly next after the completion of a census of the United States, and then only in accordance with the principles hereinbefore provided. The persons voted for for senators shall, at the time of such vote, belong to and reside in the respective districts in which they are so voted for.
Sec. 6. The treasurer, secretary, and comptroller, for the Canvass of votes time being, shall canvass the votes publicly. The person in, each district having the greatest number of votes for senator shall be declared to be elected for such district; but in cases where no choice is made by the electors in consequence of an equality of votes, the house of representatives shall designate, by ballot, which of the candidates having such equal number of votes, shall be declared to be elected. The return of votes, and the result of the canvass, shall be submitted to the house of representatives, and also to the senate, on the first day of the session of the general assembly; and each house shall be the final judge of the election returns and qualifications of its own members.
Sec. 7. A general election for governor, lieutenant-gov- General election ; ernor, secretary, treasurer, comptroller, and members of the when held. general assembly shall be held on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November, biennially, as now provided by law, and for such other officers as are herein and may be hereafter prescribed. The general assembly shall have power to enact laws
Duties of presiding officer at
regulating and prescribing the order and manner of voting for said officers, and also providing for the election of representatives at some time subsequent to the Tuesday after the first Monday of November in all cases when it shall so happen that the electors in any town shall fail on that day to elect the representative or representatives to which such town shall be by law entitled.
SEC. 8. At the general election for state officers and memgeneral election. bers of the general assembly the presiding officer shall receive
the votes of the electors, which shall be by ballot, either written or printed, and count and declare them in open meeting. The presiding officers shall also make duplicate lists of the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each, which shall be certified by the presiding officers; one of which lists shall be delivered to the town clerk, and the other within ten days after said meeting, shall be delivered under seal, either to the secretary, or to the sheriff of the county in which said town is situated; which list shall be directed to the secretary, with a superscription expressing the purport of the contents thereof; and each sheriff, who shall receive such votes, shall, within fifteen days after said meeting, deliver, or cause them to be delivered, to the secretary.
SEC. 9. The members of the general assembly shall hold eral assembly. their offices from the Wednesday following the first Monday of
the January next succeeding their election, until the Wednesday after the first Monday of the third January succeeding their election, and until their successors are duly qualified.
Sec. 10. The house of representatives, when assembled, shall choose a speaker, clerk, and other officers. The senate shall choose its clerk, and other officers, except the president. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent members in such manner, and under such penalties, as each house may prescribe.
SEC. 11. Each house shall determine the rules of its own determine rules of its own pro- proceedings, punish members for disorderly conduct, and, with
the consent of two-thirds, expel a member, but not a second time for the same cause; and shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the legislature of a free and independent state.
SEC. 12. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish the same, when required by one-fifth of its members, except such parts as, in the judgment of a majority, require secrecy. The yeas and nays of the members of either house shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered
Term of office of members of gen
Officers of House and Senate; attendance of members.
Each house to
on the journals. Privileges of sen- SEC. 13. The senators and representatives shall, in all
ators and representatives.