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be entitled to full payment of wages earned. And when the voyage is ended every such seaman shall be entitled to the remainder of the wages which shall be then due him, as provided in section 4529 of the Revised Statutes: Provided further, That notwithstanding any release signed by any seaman under section 4552 of the Revised Statutes any court having jurisdiction may upon good cause shown set aside such release and take such action as justice shall require: and provided further, That this section shall apply to seamen on foreign vessels while in harbors of the United States, and the courts of the United States shall be open to such seamen for its enforcement.'

SEO. 32. That paragraph (a) of section 10 of the Act entitled "An Act to remove certain burdens on the American merchant marine and encourage the American foreign carrying trade, and for other purposes," approved June 26, 1884, as amended, is hereby amended to read as follows:

“SEC. 10. (a) That it shall be, and is hereby, made unlawful in any case to pay any seaman wages in advance of the time when he has actually earned the same, or to pay such advance wages, or to make any order, or note, or other evidence of indebtedness therefor to any other person, or to pay any person, for the shipment of seamen when payment is deducted or to be deducted from a seaman's wages. Any person violating any of the foregoing provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall be punished by a fine of not less than $25 nor more than $100, and may also be imprisoned for a period of not exceeding six months, at the discretion of the court. The payment of such advance wages or allotment, whether made within or without the United States or territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof, shall in no case except as herein provided absolve the vessel or the master or the owner thereof from the full payment of wages after the same shall have been actually earned, and shall be no defense to a libel suit or action for the recovery of such wages. If any person shall demand or receive, either directly or indirectly, from any seaman or other person seeking employment, as seaman, or from any person on his behalf, any remuneration whatever for providing him with employment, he shall for every such offense be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be imprisoned not more than six months or fined not more than $500.

SEO. 33. That section 20 of such Act of March 4, 1915, be, and is, amended to read as follows:

"SEO. 20. That any seaman who shall suffer personal injury in the course of his employment may, at his election, maintain an action for damages at law, with the right of trial by jury, and in such action all statutes of the United States modifying or extending the commonlaw right or remedy in cases of personal injury to railway employees shall apply; and in case of the death of any seaman as a result

of any such personal injury the personal representative of such seaman may maintain an action for damages at law with the right of trial by jury, and in such action all statutes of the United States conferring or regulating the right of action for death in the case of railway employees shall be applicable. Jurisdiction in such actions shall be under the court of the district in which the defendant employer resides or in which his principal office is located."

SEO. 34. That in the judgment of Congress, articles or provisions in treaties or conventions to which the United States is a party,

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which restrict the right of the United States to impose discriminating customs duties on imports entering the United States in foreign vessels and in vessels of the United States, and which also restrict the right of the United States to impose discriminatory tonnage dues on foreign vessels and on vessels of the United States entering the United States should be terminated, and the President is hereby authorized and directed within ninety days after this Act becomes law to give notice to the several Governments, respectively, parties to such treaties or conventions, that so much thereof as imposes any such restriction on the United States will terminate on the expiration of such periods as may be required for the giving of such notice by the provisions of such treaties or conventions.

Sec. 35. That the power and authority vested in the board by this Act, except as herein otherwise specifically provided, may be exercised directly by the board, or by it through the United States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation.

SEO. 36. That if any provision of this Act is declared unconstitutional or the application of any provision to certain circumstances be held invalid, the remainder of the Act and the application of such provisions to circumstances other than those as to which it is held invalid shall not be affected thereby. SEC. 37. That when used in this Act, unless the context otherwise

, requires, the terms “person," "vessel," "documented under the

. ' laws of the United States," and "citizen of the United States” shall have the meaning assigned to them by sections 1 and 2 of the “Shipping Act, 1916," as amended by this Act; the term "board” means the United States Shipping Board; and the term "alien" means any person not a citizen of the United States.

SEO. 38. That section 2 of the Shipping Act, 1916, is amended to read as follows:

“SEO. 2. (a) That within the meaning of this Act no corporation, partnership, or association shall be deemed a citizen of the United States unless the controlling interest therein is owned by citizens of the United States, and, in the case of a corporation, unless its president and managing directors are citizens of the United States and the corporation itself is organized under the laws of the United States or of a State, Territory, District, or possession thereof, but in the case of a corporation, association, or partnership operating any vessel in the coastwise trade the amount of interest required to be owned by citizens of the United States shall be 75 per centum.

“(b) The controlling interest in a corporation shall not be deemed to be owned by citizens of the United States (a) if the title to a majority of the stock thereof is not vested in such citizens free from any trust or fiduciary obligation in favor of any person not a citizen of the United States; or (b) if the majority of the voting power in such corporation is not vested in citizens of the United States; or (c) if through any contract or understanding it is so arranged that the majority of the voting power may be exercised, directly or indirectly, in behalf of any person who is not a citizen of the United States; or (d) if by any other means whatsoever control of the corporation is conferred upon or permitted to be exercised by any person who is not a citizen of the United States.

"(c) Seventy-five per centum of the interest in a corporation shall not be deemed to be owned by citizens of the United States (a) if the title to 75 per centum of its stock is not vested in such citizens free from any trust or fiduciary obligation in favor of any person not a citizen of the United States; or (b) if 75 per centum of the voting power in such corporation is not vested in citizens of the United States; or (c) if, through any contract or understanding it is so arranged that more than 25 per centum of the voting power in such corporation may be exercised, directly or indirectly, in behalf of any person who is not a citizen of the United States; or (d) if by any other means whatsoever control of any interest in the corporation in excess of 25 per centum is conferred upon or permitted to be exercised by any person who is not

a citizen of the United States. “(d) The provisions of this Act shall apply to receivers and trustees of all persons to whom the Act applies, and to the successors or assignees of such persons."

Sec. 39. That this Act may be cited as the Merchant Marino Act, 1920.

Approved, June 5, 1920.

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(H. R. 6202.] An Act To amend sections 11 and 12 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That section 11 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920, be, and the same is hereby, amended to read as follows:

“ Sec. 11. (a) That during a period of five years from the enactment of this Act (Merchant Marine Act of 1920) the board may annually set aside out of the revenues from sales and operations a sum not exceeding $25,000,000, to be known as its construction loan fund. The board may use such fund to the extent it thinks proper, upon such terms as the board may prescribe, in making loans to aid persons citizens of the United States in the construction by them in private shipyards or navy yards of the United State of vessels of the best and most efficient type for the establishment or maintenance of service on lines deemed desirable or necessary by the board, provided such vessels shall be fitted and equipped with the most modern, the most efficient, and the most economical engines, machinery, and commercial appliances or, in the outfitting and equipment by them in private shipyards or navy yards of the United States of vessels already built, with engines, machinery, and commercial appliances of the type and kind mentioned. "(b) The term ' vessel' or vessels,' where used in this section,

' shall be construed to mean a vessel or vessels to aid in whose construction or equipment a loan is made from the construction loan fund of the board. All such vessels shall be documented under the laws of the United States and shall remain documented under such laws for not less than five years from the date the loan is made; and, so long as there remains due the United States any principal or interest on account of such loan.

"(c) No loan shall be made for a longer time than fifteen years. If it is not to be repaid within two years from the date when the first advance on the loan is made by the board, the principal shall be payable in installments to be definitely prescribed in the instruments. Such installments shall be made payable at intervals not exceeding two years; and in amounts not less than 6 per centum of the original amount of the loan, if the installments are payable at intervals of one year or less; and in amounts not less than 12 per centum of the original amount of the loan, if the installments are at intervals exceeding one year in length. The loan may be paid at any time, on thirty days written notice to the board, with interest computed to date of payment.

“(d) All such loans shall bear interest at rates to be fixed by the board, payable not less frequently than annually. During any interest period in which the vessel is operated exclusively in coastwise trade, or is inactive, the rate of interest shall be not less than 64 per centum per annum. During any interest period in which the vessel is operated in foreign trade, the rate shall be not less than 47 per centum per annum. The board may prescribe rules for determining the amount of interest payable under the provisions of this paragraph.

“(e) No loan shall be for a greater sum than oue-half the cost of the vessel or vessels to be constructed; or, than one-half the cost of the equipment hereinbefore authorized for a vessel already built: Provided, however, If security is furnished in addition to the mortgage on the vessel or vessels, the board may increase the amount loaned, but such additional amount shall not exceed one-half the market value of the additional security furnished, and in no case shall the total loan be for a greater sum than two-thirds of the cost of the vessel or vessels to be constructed; or, than two-thirds of the cost of the equipment, and its installation, for vessels already built.

(f) The board shall require such security as it shall deem necessary to insure the completion of the construction or equipment of the vessel within a reasonable time and the repayment of the loan with interest; when the vessel is completed the security shall include a preferred mortgage on the vessel, complying with the provisions of section 30 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920, which mortgage shall contain appropriate covenants and provisions to insure the proper physical maintenance of the vessel, and its protection against liens for taxes, penalties, claims, or liabilities of any kind whatever, which might impair the security for the debt. It shall also contain any other covenants and provisions the board may prescribe, including a provision for the summary maturing of the entire debt, for causes to be enumerated in the mortgage.

“(g) The board shall also require and the security furnished shall provide that the owner of the vessel shall keep the same insured against loss or damage by fire, and against marine risks and disasters, and against any and all other insurable risks the board specifies, with such insurance companies, associations or underwriters, and under such forms of policies, and to such an amount, as the board may prescribe or approve; such insurance shall be made payable to the board and/or to the parties, as interest may appear. The board is authorized to enter into any agreement that it deems wise in respect to the payment and for the guarantee of premiums of insurance."

SEC. 2. That section 12 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920, be, and the same is hereby, amended by adding at the end thereof a new paragraph to read as follows:

“ The term reconditioned' as used in this section includes the substitution of the most modern, most efficient, and most economical types of internal-combustion engines as the main propulsive power of vessels. Should the board have any such engines built in the United States and installed, in private shipyards or navy yards of the United States, in one or more merchant vessels owned by the United States, and the cost to the board of such installation exceeds the amount of funds otherwise available to it for that use, the board may transfer to its funds from which expenditures under this section may be paid, from its construction loan fund authorized by section 11 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920, so much as in its judgment may be necessary to meet obligations under contracts for such installation; and the Treasurer of the United States shall, at the

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