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the apostles; also the terror of future judgment, the horror of the pains of hell, and the delights of heaven; besides much more of the divine benefits and judgments; by all which he endeavoured to turn men from the love of vice, and to excite in them the love and practice of good actions' (Cassell's Library of English Literature, by Professor H. Morley ; vol. ii., p. 4). There have been indicated some remarkable points of resemblance between Cadmon's Paraphrase and Milton's Paradise Lost.

The poem remains in a West Saxon copy of the original Northumbrian version now lost. We follow Thorpe and Grein.

THE FLOOD. (From The Paraphrase of Scripture, Book I., Canto xxi.) Noe hæfde,

Noah had, sunu Lameches,

son of Lamech, syx hund wintra,

six hundred winters, tha he mid bearnum

S5 when he with his bairns under bord gestah,

under boards entered, gleaw mid geogothe,

the sage with the youth, be Godes hæse,

by God's behest, dugethum dyrum.

with the people dear. Drihten sende

90 The Lord sent regn from roderum,

rain from the heavens, and eac rume let

and eke pouring let wille-burnan

well-(springs) burns1 on woruld thringan

on the world throng of ædra gehwære,

95 from every vein, egor-streamas

the ocean streams swearte swogan :

swart2 sounding burst forth : sæs up stigon

the seas up rose ofer stæth-weallas.

over the shore-walls. Strang wæs and rethe 100 Strong was and fierce sethe wætrum weold,

he that the waters swayed, wreah and theahte

covered and overwhelmed man-fphthu bearn

the sinful bairns middan-geardes

of mid earth wonnan wæge,

105 with the wan wave, wera ethel-land,

men's native lands, hof hergode.

their houses, harried.3 Hyge teonan wræc

Their thought's wrongs wreaked 4 metod on monnum:

the Measurer5 on men: mere swithe grap

110 the mere strongly griped on fæge folc.

on the fated folk. 1 Brooks. 2 Darkly. 3 Laid waste. 4 Avenged. 5 Or Creator

6 Sea.

Feowertig daga, nihta other swilc, nith wæs rethe, wæll-grim werum: wuldor-cyninges ytha wræcon arleasra feorh of flæsc-homan. Flod ealle wreab hreoh under heofonum, hea-beorgas geond sidne grund, and on sund ahof earce from eorthan, and tha æthelo mid tha segnade selfa Drihten, scyppend usser, tha he thæt scip beleac.

Siththan wide rad, wolcnum under, ofer holmes brincg, hof seleste, for mid fearme. Fære ne moston wæg-lithendum wætres brogan hæste brinon; ac hie halig God ferede and nerede. Fiftena stod deop ofer dunum sæ-drence flod monnes elna.

Forty days,
nights other such,?

the punishment was fierce, 115 fatally grim to men :

the king of glory's
waves drove
the wicked ones' lives

out of their flesh-coverings. 120 Flood all covered,

rough under the heavens,
the high berg88
over the wide ground,

and a-swimming upheaved 125 the ark from the earth,

and the noble company with it
that 9 blessed
the Lord himself,

the shaper of us,
130 when he the ship shut up.

Then wide rode, the welkin under, over ocean’s ring,

the dwelling most excellent, 133 fared 10 with its freight.

Gushing must not
the wave-wandering"
the water's terrors

hastily touch;
140 but them the holy God

piloted and preserved.
Fifteen stood
deep over the downs

the sea-drenching flood 145 man's ells.

7 As many.

8 Hills, mountains. 9 Object to 'blessed,' which is pred. to 'Lord.' 10 Went, travelled. 11 Object to touch.'

NOTES. 84. Syz hund wintra. Note the meas- reckoned by nights' as well as by urement of time by winters. Com- days. Hence sennight' (seven pare Engl. Chron., 449 A.D.: ‘rixadon nights) and 'fortnight' (fourteen vii. winter. Shorter periods were nights).


89. Dugethum. 'Duguth (-oth, -eth),' honourless, piety-less, base.

The good, virtue; hence nobility, chiefs ; suffix 'leas' (less) is quite different men, people. From dugan,' to be from ‘less,' the compar. of 'little.' good or fit for, to avail. How do

127. Segnade.
Cf. Ger. segnen,

to you do?' is 'How do you avail, bless, and Scotch sane (sain). prevail, get on?"

Dunbar, Tydingis fra the Sessioun, 90. Drihten (from "driht,' company, 41: 'Sum sanis the sait, and sum

household), chief and director, lord. thame curses ; ' that is, 'Some sane Compare 'theoden' (chief, lord), (or sain, bless) the seat (“the Lords from 'theod' (people, nation).

of the Seat" or of Session), and some 98. Stigon, 3d plur. of stah (compare

them curse.' The word is still used 86), past tense of 'stigan,' to rise, for "bless,' and also ironically for

'curse.' 101. Weold, wielded, past tense of

128. Selfa Drihten, “The Lord self' 'wealdan,'to rule, command. Hence would be quite in accordance with wealdend' (ruler), and 'Alwalda'

'Self' was an adj. = (Almighty).

same.' Later it began to be taken 102. Theahte, past tense of 'theccan,' for a noun : hence 'the Lord's self,'

to cover, thatch, Scotch theek. and the corruptions 'myself,' 'thyCf. Ger. decken,

self,' &c. 107. Hergode, past tense of 'hergian,' | 131. Siththan =sith-than, after that, to harry. 'Hergian' is from here,' since, then.

Sith' (conj.) is not army, host (Goth. harjës, Ger. heer); very long obsolete. hence to act like an army, plunder, 137. Lithendum, dat. pl. of 'lithende,' ravage.

part. of 'lithan' (to go or be con108. Teonan. "Teona' (injury, wrong) veyed). Hence ladu, gelad : see appears much later as 'teen' (hurt,

Beowulf, 2722. vexation).

142. Fiftena agrees with 'elna' (145). 118. Arleasra, gen. pl. of 'arleas,' Fifteen ells deep stood the flood.'

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old usage.

ALFRED.-849-901 A.D. In the short intervals of peace between the persistent inroads of the Danes, KING ALFRED laboured indefatigably in the cause of religion and learning. He fostered schools, and besides this he wrote diligently with his own hand.

Alfred translated into English several books: Boëthius's Consolation of Philosophy, and Pope Gregory the Great's Pastoral Rule; Bæda's History of England, and the History of Orosius, the Latin text-book of the monastery schools in universal history. With his translations he frequently incorporated matter of his own.

We follow Thorpe's text.


(From the Translation of Orosius.) Nembrath se entongan ærest1 Nimrod the giant began first timbrian Babilonia, and Ninus to build Babylon, and Ninus se cyning æfter him, and Sa- the king after him, and Se

1 Ear(li)est. 2 To timber, construct of timber.



meramis his cwen hi geendade miramis his queen it ended æfter him, on middewerdum after him, in the midst of her hyre rice. Seo burh wæs ge- reign. The city was built timbrad on fildum lande, and on open


and swithe emnum, and heo wæs very level (land), and it swithe fæger on to locianne, was very fair to look on, and heo is swithe rihte feower- and it is quite square : and scyte :3 and thæs wealles my. the wall's greatness and celnyss 4 and fæstnyss 5 is un. strength is unbelievable to gelyfedlic to secgenne; thæt is, say; that is, that it is thæt he is L. elna brad, and 11. 50 ells broad, and 200 hund elna heah, and his ymb- ells high, and its circuit gang 6 is hund-seofantig mila is 70 miles and the seventh and seofethan dæl anre mile; part of mile; and it and he is geworht? of tigelan, is constructed of bricks and and of eorth-tyrewan;9 and of bitumen; and about the ymbutan thone weall is se wall is the greatest ditch, mæsta dic, on tham is yrnende in which is running the se ungefotlicosta 10 stream; and most impassable stream ; and withutan tham dice is geworht without the ditch is contwegra elna heah weall; and structed a two ells high wall ; bufan tham maran wealle, ofer and above the greater wall, eallne thone ymbgong, he is over all the circuit, it is mid stænenum wig-husum 11 with stone

towers beworht.




5 Fastness.

6 About

3 Very rightly (exactly) four-angled. 4 Mickleness. going. 7 Wrought. 8 Tiles. 9 Earth-tar. 10 Unfootablest. 11 War-houses.


Cyning. The shortened form 'cyng' | Cwen, lit. mother, woman; hence the is seen in Engl. Chron., 1087 A.D. : foremost


in the nation, 'se cyng Willelm.' In many para- ‘queen.' graphs of the Chron., the two forms To locianne, dat. infin., or gerund, of occur side by side. The derivation 'locian' (look, see). Cf. (below) 'to of 'king' (cyng, cyning) from 'can- secgenne' from ' secgan' (say). ning,' as the man that can do such Feowerscyte, four-angled. Cf. Revelaand such (great) things, is utterly tion, xxi. 16: 'the city lieth fourwrong; for at this period the parti- square.' ciple ended, not in -ing, but in Stænenum, abl. pl. neut.

of adj. -ende (cf. Cadm. Par., I. xxi. 137– stænen' (made of stone). We 'lithendum'). Max Müller would have no adj. for this meaning now: trace it back to a form signifying we use the noun 'stone' as an adj. 'father.'

-a common condensation.


THE 10TH, 11TH, AND 12TH CENTURIES. The ANGLO-SAXon or ENGLISH CHRONICLE records events, year by year, from Cæsar's invasion of Britain down to the accession of Henry II. on the death of Stephen, in 1154 A. D.

Some critics would like to 'ascribe the origin of it to Alfred; others tell us at he was the writer that 'edited it from various sources, added largely to it from Bæda, and raised it to the dignity of a national history' (S. Brooke): at anyrate, about Alfred's time it begins to narrate events in much greater detail. For two centuries and a half onwards, the annals of the country are set down by contemporary monks, chiefly of Winchester, Peterborough, and Canterbury. On a few occasions, the Chronicler bursts into song; more frequently he mixes comments and reflections with his facts. Towards the end of the record, there are not wanting many marks of carelessness or ignorance on the part of the writers.

We follow generally Thorpe's edition for the Rolls series.




An. CCCC.XLIX.—Her Marti. 449 A.D.-In this year Martianus and Ualentinus onfengon anus and Valentinus undertook rice, and rixadon VII. winter. the government, and governed And on heora dagum gelathode seven winters. And in their Wyrtgeorn Angelcin hider, days invited Wyrtgeorn the and hi tha comon on thrim Angle race hither, and they ceolum hider to Brytene, then came in three keels hither

tham stede Heopwines to Britain, at the place Heopfleot. Se cyning Wyrtgeorn wines-fleet. The king Wyrtgef heom land suthan georn gave them land in the eastan thissum lande, with than south-east of this land, on conthe hi sceoldon feohton with dition that they should fight Pyhtas. Heo tha fuhton against the Picts. They then with Pyhtas, and heofdon fought against the Picts, and sige hwer

heo had victory wheresoever they Hy tha sendon to

They then sent to Angle, heton sendon mara ful. Angel, bade send greater help, tum, and heton heom secgan and bade to them say the Brytwalana nahtscipe and Brito-Welsh's nothingness and thes landes cysta. Hy tha the land's excellencies. They sendon hider

then soon sent hither a greater weored tham othrum to ful- host to the others for help. tume. Tha comon tha men of Then came men from three thrim megthum Germanie : of tribes of Germany: from the







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