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PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

The pronouns or substitutes are learned by lists.

LIST 1.-I, thou or you, he, she, it, with their plurals, we, ye or you, they. These are called personal pronouns, because their forms show what person they are in.

Declension of Personal Pronouns.

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The pronoun of the first person stands for the name of the speaker, that of the second person, for the name of the person addressed, and those of the third person, for the name of the person or thing spoken of.

Gender is applied only to the third person singular; he, she, it. The first and second persons being always present, their sex is supposed to be known.

*For an explanation of mine, thine, &c. see list 2.

+ Me and Not-me are nouns, in a certain use, in the philosophical language of continental Europe.

"The me, and the not-me are phrases used to express personality and its opposite, the soul and that which is not the soul, or rather nature."― Meth. Quart. Review, 1842, p. 170.

"Is it not this force, which we call I, me, our individuality, our personality that personality of which we never doubt, which we never confound with any other?"

"The me, then, is revealed to us in the character of cause or force."Cousin's Elements of Psychol.

Exercises.

He respects me as his friend, and I regard him as my friend. "Thou art also of them." Your interest controls you. They respect her wishes, because she has shown them great kindness. Thy friend salutes thee. The lad loves his parents, and they are delighted with him.

Parse the pronouns in the preceding exercises, after the following.

MODEL. He is a pronoun, because it stands for a noun; personal, its form shows its person; masculine gender, third person, singular number, to agree with the noun for which it stands; and in the nom. case to respects, because it is the subject and agent of the verb, and governs it, according to Rule 1. (which repeat.) Decline he.

NOTE. The distinction of gender is to be applied, in parsing, only to he and she. The pronouns should be disposed of as the nouns, for which they stand, would be.

Now write a sentence with a name, and then another on the same subject, with a pronoun, after this

Model of Composition.

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Write several exercises of this kind, and continue them through the pronouns, writing on each list as you proceed.

Foundation of Rule XII. in Syntax.

As an agent or representative is bound to exercise the leading traits of his principal or constituents, when he acts for them; so a pronoun (which may be called the agent, or representative of a noun) must have the leading traits of the noun for which it stands. Hence in Syntax.

RULE XII. Pronouns must agree with the nouns for which they stand, in person and number; as, John is studious, he will excel. Susan is industrious, she will prosper. If they are children, they are heirs.

Now parse all the names, verbs, and pronouns, under Rule 12.

Remarks.

In the Anglo-Saxon, nouns, pronouns and adjectives, have three genders and four cases. Some of our pronouns may be illustrated by the following

Saxon Declension of He.

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All these are inflected forms of he, in the Saxon. The parts in italics are not in the present English. Instead of heo, we have she, from the Saxon definitive, se-the or that, which see declined at p. 105. It has lost the h, (hi-t-the t being added as the sign of the neuter) which has much disguised its character. Instead of the plural, we have they, &c. from the Saxon thage. See Bosworth's Saxon Gram.

It will be observed, that the most of what follows on the substitutes, is marked for the review. The pupil should not undertake to learn more than the lists, and models of parsing the following substitutes, before the review; but these should be learned at an early stage of his progress.

IT.

The rain descends upon the earth, and it refreshes the plants. Here it stands for rain, to prevent the repetition of the word rain.

The bird was singing most sweetly, but it has flown. In this example it stands for bird.

It, though neuter, is often used in the beginning of sentences for the names of persons, when the name for which it stands follows the verb, thus, It was James that informed me. Henry who possessed such fine rhetorical powers.

It was

It, also stands for the names of persons, as well as things, in interrogative sentences; as, Who is it? What is it?

It, has in many instances, a kind of impersonal use; as, It rains. It will snow. It freezes. It has become very dry.

REMARK. For farther illustration of it, see under the substitute that, and under rule 12, in Syntax.

LIST 2.—Mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs.

These substitutes are constantly used in the nomina tive case to verbs, and in the objective case after verbs and prepositions, and therefere they cannot be in the possessive

case.

*

NOTE 1. Mine and thine are sometimes used in the poss. case, in sacred or lofty style, but not in common language.

NOTE 2. When mine, thine and his, are added to nouns, they are in the possessive case, but otherwise they are in the nom. or obj. case; as, "Unto thee lift I up mine eyes, O thou that dwellest in the heavens." Ps. 123. 1.

Examples.

"The silver is mine and the gold is mine." Hag. 2. 8. That book is thine. This map is his. This pencil is hers. These quills are ours. Those plants are yours. He left his books and brought theirs. "My friend sacrificed his fortune to secure yours." "His deeds deserve reward; yours merit disgrace.' Henry's labors are past; thine are to come." "We leave your forests of beast, for ours of men." My sword and yours are kin."

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"Think not, a husband gained, that all is done;
The prize of happiness must still be won;
And, oft, the careless find out to their cost,
The lover in the husband may be lost;
The graces might alone his heart allure-
They and the virtues, meeting, must secure.”
Lord Littleton.

Parse all the substitutes of list 2d, found in the preceding examples; thus:

Mine is a substitute, because it stands for my silver; personal, its form shows its person; first person, singular, to agree with the leading word for which it stands; and it is in the nom. case after is, because it includes the meaning of silver, which is the subject or nominative, according to Rule 8, (which repeat.) Write exercises as before directed.

"To say that ours, yours, theirs and mine, form a possessive case, is to make the possessive perform the office of a nominative case to verbs, and an objective case after verbs and prepositions—a manifest solecism." Webster's Imp. Gram. p. 27.

COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

The Compound Personal Pronouns are formed by adding the intensive word self,-in the plural selves,-to the pronouns, to give them emphasis; as, myself, themselves.

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NOTE. It will be observed that self is added to the pronouns, only in part of their forms.

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Parse the compound pronouns in the preceding examples, after the following

MODEL. Himself is a pronoun, because it stands for a name; personal, its form shows its person; compound, it is formed of him and self; masculine gender, third person, singular, to agree with the noun for which it stands according to Rule xii. and in the nom. case, put by opposition with he, because it means the same person, according to Rule vii. (which repeat.)

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