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he, the many and variegated colours of | the souls. The black and filthy is the colour of illiberality and avarice; the blood-red and fiery, of cruelty and barbarity; but where the green is, there an unbounded love of pleasure is hard to be obliterated; and the blue and black send forth envy mingled with malignity, as cuttle-fish emit their black staining ink. For here, the soul being changed by its passions, and changing the body, vice produces certain colours; hence the accomplishment of the purification and punishment, is the soul's being left free from spots, and resplendent by the destruction of these colours. While these spots are inherent in the soul, they are subject to certain sensations and sufferings, as bounding and agitation; in some it is languid and easily stopped, but in others very great. Of these souls, some with repeated punishment, receive the habit and affection suited to them; but others, on the contrary, the force of ignorance and the idea of pleasure drive into the bodies of animals; for the weakness of reason, through the sloth of the perceptive faculty, casts them into productive generation, where wishing for the power of intemperance, they desire to conjoin affections with enjoyment, and to fulfil their desires by means of the body; for here there is nothing but a kind of inefficient shade, and a dream of pleasure having no actual enjoyment.

Saying these things, the spirit, proceeding easily and expeditiously, borne up on the beams of light as on wings, led him into a boundless region; till arriving at a certain gulf, extensive and yawning below, he was deserted by the strength which had upheld him, and saw other souls suffering the same; for gathering together as birds, and being borne along, they went round the chasm in a circle, not daring to press in a right line. The gulf itself appeared diversified, like the caves of the Bacchantes, with wood and verdure, and every species of flowers; and breathed forth soft and gentle gales, bearing odours, most exquisitely sweet, which produced such a sensation of pleasure as wine does in those that are intoxicated. The souls enjoying these odours, poured themselves out in pleasure, and mutually delighted each other; while all around, revelling, laughter, and every kind of

amusement and delight, filled the place. The spirit, said Bacchus, had ascended here to the gods, and had led Semele after him, and that the place was called the Region of Forgetfulness. Here the guide would not permit Thespesius to remain, who most earnestly desired to stay, but drew him away by force, shewing him at the same time the reason, and saying, that his mind would be rendered soft and effeminate by pleasure; and the brutish and corporeal part being watered, and rendered more fleshly, would make him mindful of his body; from this circumstance, love and desire would draw him into generation, which was thus named from ɛπì yñv vevσiç, an inclination to the earth, the soul being weighed down by pleasure.

Having passed over much of his way, he seemed to look down upon a great crater into which many streams flowed-one whiter than snow or the foam of the sea; another of a purple colour, as the rainbow appears; and others tinged with different dyes, emitting their own light to a great distance. When he drew near, the crater itself retained a most splendid appearance, but no whiteness, the circumambient air being dense, and the colour by no means distinct. He saw also THREE Gods sitting together in the form of a TRIANGLE, from certain vessels pouring in streams INTO one another. The leader of the soul of Thespesius said, Thus far Orpheus came, when he sought after the soul of his wife, but not rightly remembering, had brought a false report to men, "that the oracle of Delphi was common to both Apollo and Night," for nothing is common to Apollo with Night: but he said the common oracle of Night and the Moon is not shut up anywhere by the earth, nor fixed to one spot, but wandering about among men in dreams and visions: hence dreams are mixed as you see, and the simple and the true are disseminated together with the false and the various; but that belonging to Apollo thou hast not known, nor art thou able to know, for the terrestrial part of the soul cannot ascend or loosen itself, but stretches towards the earth, depending on the body. At the same time, leading him along, he strove to show him a light issuing from a tripod, coming forth, as he said, through the bosom of Themis, an

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resting on Parnassus. Thespesius de-
siring to behold more, could not see
on account of the excessive bright-
ness; but in passing by it, he heard
the shrill voice of a woman declaring
in verse, among other things, the time
of his death. The spirit said it was
the voice of the Sibyl, and that being
borne round in the face of the moon,
she sung of future events. Wishing
to hear more, he was driven out by
the force of the moon, as though by a
whirlwind, to another part, and under-
stood only a few things, among which
were, that Mount Vesuvius and Di-
cæarchæa would be convulsed by an
eruption of fire, and this small verse
concerning the then ruling governor,
"That being good, disease his reign should


After these things, they turned to those who were suffering punishment. At first they beheld only wretched and miserable sights; when afterwards, Thespesius, contrary to all expectation, met with his friends and companions enduring affliction; who, undergoing heavy punishments, and most calamitous and terrible sufferings, excited pity and commiseration in him. Lastly, also, he saw his father ascending from a certain gulf covered with spots and cicatrices; stretching out his hands to him, and not suffered to remain silent, but obliged by the superintendants of his punishment to confess, that he had acted iniquitously with regard to some strangers who were possessed of considerable riches, whom he had destroyed by poison; that on earth he had concealed the whole transaction, but here he was punished, having already gone through some portion of his pains, and was now led along to suffer the remainder. Thespesius dared not supplicate or entreat for his father, through dread and fear; but wishing to turn away and fly, no longer could he see his beneficent and kind guide, but was driven onward by others of a most fearful countenance. As he was obliged thus to pass along, he saw that the souls of some who had been wicked openly, or had endured punishment while on earth, experienced not so grievous a degree of suffering, nor yet were afflicted so heavily for that part of their souls which was subject to passions, and brutal; but certain officers who were appointed, obliged others, who had lived in hidden wick

edness by assuming the appearance and splendour of virtue, laboriously and painfully to turn to the outside the things that were within their souls; bending and twisting themselves against nature, as scolopendras turn inside out, when they have swallowed the hook. Some being stripped and laid open, they shewed to be vicious, dyed with many marks, regarding wickedness in their thoughts and hearts. He said he saw other souls like serpents, two, three, and sometimes more, twisted together, devouring one another on account of injuries and malevolence they had either committed or suffered while alive. There were also lakes placed near them; one of boiling gold; another of chilling lead; and a third of rough iron: there were also certain demons, like workers in brass, who, with their instruments, took up and let down into these lakes the souls guilty of covetousness and avarice. While they were glowing, and rendered transparent by the excessive heat of the golden lake, they cast them headlong into the leaden one; and then being frozen and made hard like icicles, again they moved them into the iron lake, where being made terribly black, they were broken and dashed to pieces through their brittleness, and in this they also changed their appearance; after this they were again hurled into the golden lake, suffering in their various changes most excruciating torments. But of all, he said, those suffered most who thought to escape from Justice, and were seized; these were they whose punishment would pass over to their descendants. When any one of these approached and met with Justice, she fell upon it in a rage, and pursued it with hideous noises; shewing the marks of the chastisement it had suffered; upbraiding and following after it, while it strives to escape and hide itself, but is not able; for the torturers drag it before her, and drive it howling along for dread of the punishment it knows it will receive. He said there were many souls of their descendants knit together disorderly, like bees, crying through rage at the recollection of the things they suffered through them.

In the last place he saw the souls entering into a second generation, being bent by force and transformed, by the officers of vengeance, with cer

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Another Reply to the same Question. THICKEN two quarts of water with four ounces of flour, boil it for half an hour, and sweeten it with three ounces of brown sugar, not the brownest. When almost cold, pour it on four tablespoonfuls of Yeast in an earthen jar, deep enough to rise; shake it well together, and place it for a day before the fire; then pour off the thin liquor on the top; shake the remainder, and close it up for use.

tain instruments, and blows, into ani- | with as much of your Fermenting Limals of every kind; the officers tak- quor, as will bring it to the consistence ing away whole limbs, turning back of thin Yeast; cover it up, and let it others, and cutting off and entirely remain covered up before the fire three destroying some, that they might be or four hours, or until you find the feradapted to other customs and other mentation commence, when you may lives. Among them he saw the soul use it as you would common Yeast, of Nero suffering many things, and but rather in a larger quantity. pierced through with golden nails. When the officers had given the body of the Pindarick serpent to it, in which being conceived, and eating through its mother, it might live, he said that suddenly a great light shone forth, and that a voice came out of the light, commanding "that it should be changed into another creature, and fixed in the body of an animal that sings about lakes and marshes, for that it had suffered from Justice for the evil it had done; that the gods were indebted to it, because it had liberated that most excellent and pious nation of their subjects, Greece."Thus far, he was a spectator of these things; but when he was about to turn away, he was seized with great fear, for a woman, of a wonderful form and size, taking hold of him, said, "Hither thou hast come, that thou mayest remember every thing!" She bore a certain fiery wand, like those of painters-then he, as though through a pipe, being driven along by a strong forcible wind, fell down into his body, and opened his eyes as if only just now placed in the tomb.


Answer by T. S. to an inquiry on a Substitute for Yeast, inserted col. 773. TAKE three-quarters of an ounce of good fresh hops, boil them 20 minutes over a clear fire, in six quarts of clean soft water; when lukewarm, strain them into a large bowl or dish, into which throw half a pound of flour and a pint of cold soft water, being previously mixed together;-when these are cold, put the whole (being again strained) into a stone bottle, to be kept in a kitchen corner eight or ten days, when by shaking once daily, it will become ready for use.-This to be marked Fermenting Liquor.

How to use it.-Boil three or four potatoes of a light mealy kind, which being well crushed, and two table spoonfuls of flour added, mix there

It ought to be strained before using. Keep it in a cool cellar, or hang it in a well. Keep some of it for making the next quantity, and put rather more than the four table-spoonfuls for making new Yeast.



SIR,-A friend to the Imperial Magazine, wishes to inclose you the following recipe to make Yeast:-Take four ounces of hops, and boil them in ten quarts of water till it is reduced to six quarts; have ready four pounds of potatoes boiled and mashed smooth, put them into two quarts of cold water, then add four pounds of flour, and mix it with the water and potatoes; then strain the boiling liquor into them, and mix all together, and, when cool enough, put one pint of oldmade Yeast to it, (it should be of the same sort, but common Yeast will do for the first time making) stirring it in, letting it stand and ferment 24 hours; then put it into a stone or earthen bottle, and cork it well up; in a week it will be fit for use. Put one pint of Yeast to ten pounds of flour; it should remain in spunge twelve hours. The Yeast should always be shaken before poured out for use; and when first made, the longer it stands, the less danger there is of its bursting the bottle. I may, from experience, venture to assure your readers, that this is even preferable to common Yeast. MARY THOMAS,

Leeds, Sept. 14, 1820.


A Correspondent gives the following direction for making Potatoe Bread :-Put the Potatoes in a net, into a skillet or saucepan, with cold water, which, hang at a distance over the fire, so that the Potatoes may not boil until they become soft. Then skin and mash them, and mix them with an equal weight of flour; of yeast and salt a sufficient quantity; and a little warm water. Knead the whole up as other dough. Lay it a little while before the fire to rise, then bake it in a very hot oven. Flour of Rice, or Barley Meal, may be used instead of Wheat Flour.

I have eaten bread made after the above manner, and have found it very good.



THE Sun enters Sagittarius on the 22d, at twenty-two minutes past eight in the morning. The Moon is new on the 6th; enters her first quarter on the 13th; she is full on the 20th; and enters her last quarter on the 27th. She is in her apogee on the 1st, her perigee on the 17th, and her apogee again on the 29th. She will pass Venus on the 1st, Ceres on the 4th, Mars and Mercury on the 7th, the Georgian planet on the 9th, Jupiter on the 14th, and Saturn on the 16th. Mars sets on the 1st at twenty-nine minutes past five in the evening, and on the 30th at thirty-five minutes past four. He is too near the Sun to be visible this month. Mercury sets on the 1st at sixteen minutes past five in the evening, and on the 30th at forty-one minutes past four. He is in his greatest elongation on the 17th, and stationary on the 26th. From his unfavourable position he will not be visible this month. The Georgian planet sets on the 1st at five minutes past seven in the evening, and on the 30th at eight minutes past five. He is stationary on the 11th. He is seen under the twelfth of the Archer, near the western margin of the milky-way. Jupiter sets on the 1st at two minutes past two in the morning, and on the 30th at fifty-nine minutes past eleven in the evening. He is stationary on the 6th. He is seen near the same

spot to the west of the twenty-second of the Water-bearer, moving after the 6th, slowly towards this star. Saturn sets on the 1st at sixteen minutes past four in the morning, and on the 30th at six minutes past two. He is seen near the same spot, having the fourth of the Fishes near to him to the east. Venus is a morning star, rising on the 1st at fifty-four minutes past two, and on the 30th at three minutes past four. She is first seen above and near to the second of the Virgin, passing this star on the 1st, and she directs her course to the seventh of this constellation, passing above and near to it on the 8th, and under the third on the 13th. Thence she directs her course to the tenth, passing above Spica on the 26th, at the distance of about four degrees, but she stops short of the tenth, by about three degrees. Ceres is first seen under the sixth of the Virgin, being nearly in a line with this star, and the fifth and most northern of the five stars in triangle of this constellation; and she directs her course to the ninth, a small star about four degrees to the north of the tenth, which she passes on the 20th, directing her course under the second of the Balance. There are five visible eclipses of Jupiter's first Satellite this month, and they will happen in the following order: On the 1st the Satellite will emerge from Jupiter's shadow at forty-two minutes past seven in the evening; on the 8th at thirty-eight minutes past nine; on the 15th at thirty-four minutes past eleven; on the 17th at three minutes past six; and on the 24th at fifty-nine minutes past seven. The Pleiades rise on the 1st at fifty-six minutes past four in the evening, and on the 30th they set at twenty-nine minutes past seven in the morning. Aldebaran rises on the 1st at thirty-three minutes past six in the evening, and on the 30th he sets at thirty minutes past six in the morning. Rigel rises on the 1st at twenty-two minutes past nine in the evening, and on the 30th at nineteen minutes past seven. Sirius rises on the 1st at thirty-eight minutes past eleven in the evening, and on the 30th at thirty-five minutes past nine. Procyon rises on the 1st at twentyeight minutes past ten in the evening, and on the 30th at twenty-five minutes past eight. Regulus rises on the 1st at twenty-three minutes past twelve

in the morning, and on the 30th at twenty-three minutes past ten in the evening. Spica rises on the 1st at forty-one minutes past five in the morning, and on the 30th at thirtynine minutes past three. Arcturus rises on the 1st at fifty minutes past three in the morning, and on the 30th at thirty-nine minutes past one. For the rising and setting of the above stars, for any intermediate day, subtract four minutes from the time on the 1st, or add the same to the time on

the 30th.

Tower-Hill, July 7, 1820.



MR. EDITOR, SIR,-Being excited to the renewal of the study of the Greek language by my official duties, the following brief description of Tempe's pleasant vale arrested my attention. Though the garb of the original be plain prose, yet it possesses much of poetic imagery; the translation of which, proceeding from the pen of the inimitable Scott, would equal that to be found in "The Lady of the Lake," or, "The Lay of the Last Minstrel." I wish that my feeble attempt were more worthy its elegant original. But if, in your estimation, the insertion of it in your valuable miscellany should excite others to the study of those finished models of sublimity, elegance, and beauty, to be found in the ancient Greek writers, I may trouble you at some future time with a further communication.


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divine intelligence; they embrace the middle vale, whose length extends more than forty furlongs; its breadth equals, or somewhat exceeds, that of an acre. A river known by the name of the Peneus flows through the midst of it; into which other rivers unite their streams, and imbodying with it their waters, cause it to increase considerably in magnitude. This place is intersected with paths, and those of every description; not the produce of human workmanship, but of (lovely) nature itself, at that time excelling in beauty, when the situation itself obtained its first formation. For much ivy, and shrubs sweet for their irregular beauty, flourish and grow, and creep up on each side of the generous vines, and from the trunks of high trees, and rival them in their growth. The luxuriant bindweed rears its head in every direction, deriving its support from the mountain's side, and affording to the craggy rock its friendly shade, itself not less sequestered. The whole appears a verdant mead, and is the delight and praise of the eye of each beholder.

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In the level parts and dells there are numerous groves and bowers_closely united, calculated to produce the most pleasant retreat to travellers during the summer solstice. Fountains not far distant from each other issue forth their limpid current; and streams of cool waters, and those most grateful to the palate, flow through the valleys. These waters are said to be exceedingly salubrious, to those bathing in them their wearied limbs; and to conduce, in no slender degree, to the renovation of their impaired health. Birds with painted plume, alighting near each other on the slender sprig, carol of all those whose warbling voices forth their sprightly notes; but most swell with the sweetest melody. They afford to the ears a rich repast; and by their song, travellers, divested of a sense of their toil, are enabled to proceed, not only without labour, but with sincere delight. In the vicinity of each rivulet are the paths and restingplaces, which have already occupied our notice. The river, that sweet river, the river Peneus, flows through the midst of Tempe with a majestic ease, and a smoothness exceeding that of the purest oil. On its flowery banks, the trees, congenial to that soil, with their beautifully suspended branch

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