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and sand banks, tlie rocks and the channels, the islands whether naked or covered with forest, the straits both long and short.

If a pilot forgets his reckoning or goes astray and the vessel strikes upon a rock or shoal and be lost the pilot shall suffer death. If a pilot offers to quit the ship, the crew shall fall upon him, seize him and on the return of the vessel to port deliver him over to the Magistrate for punishment, and if he resist it shall be lawful to put him to death.

If it become necessary to throw cargo overboard for the safety of the vessel, this shall not be done by the commander except in consultation with the officers and crew, and the goods shall be taken for this purpose in proportion to each man's share of the cargo.

If a vessel or vessels meet the fleet of the king, every one, great or small, freemen and bondsman, man or woman, rich or poor, every soul on board shall pay the customary contribution (Lentang Paiar.)

If a country visited by vessels be invaded by an enemy and in a state of confusion, the commanders and crews of all such vessels, gnat and small, shall pay to the king the accustomed contribution (Tolak Sanjata).

If vessels sail in company and a storm coming on in the open sea, one runs foul of another which is wrecked in consequence, the magistrate shall cause the vessel so running foul of the other to pay two-thirds of the loss incurred, for the sea is wide and her crew might have contrived to avoid the danger.

If any one presume to sit in the second cabin (Balailanting) except upon business of importance he shall be punished by 5 strokes of a rattan.

If any one presume in like manner to enter the third cabin (Balaibujar) he shall receive 8 strokes of a rattan.

If any one of the crew enter the first cabin (Putaran Lawang) without business he shall receive 6 strokes of a rattan.

If any one enter the apartment of the captains of the larboard and starboard sides and sit down therein he shall be punished with 3 strokes of a rattan.

If a slave escape from on board the ship, the officers keeping the watch shall be compelled to make good his price and the watchmen on duty shall be punished with 60 strokes of a rattan.

If a vessel drive from her anchor and be wrecked, the officer on guard shall be publicly reproached, and the watchmen shall each receive 80 strokes of a rattan, or less, according to the measure of their offence.

If a vessel drives from her anchor, and be in imminent danger but not wrecked, the watchmen shall be punished with 20 strokes of a rattan only.

Four things are especially incumbent on those who keep the watch; viz, to attend to the state of the well, to watch the weather, to look out for an enemy and to take care of fire.

If any one lose the watch taken (orak orak), he shall be fined one tahil and one paha, and be compelled to bail the vessel as long as she is at sea, unless the commander shall have compassion upon him.

If those who have the watch neglect to look after those whose business it is to bail the ship, they shall be punished by 15 strokes of a rattan.

If a vessel meet another at sea and those who have the watch, whether from being asleep, from sloth, or Deglect, do not hail her, the officers shall be fined to the same extent as for permitting the escape of a slave, and the watchman shall receive 70 strokes of a rattan.

If persons come on board a vessel and the ladders give way in ascending and they meet with any accident, the commander shall be deemed in fault and be made to pay for the cure of the persons so injured.

If persons visiting a ship, burn or destroy the ladder, they shall be fined 2A mas.

If the slave of any one on board the ship be guilty of burning or destroying the ship's ladder, his master shall be fined four strings of the small coins of Java, and the slave receive 40 stripes.

If persons quarrel on board a ship, and stab or wound one another, the offenders shall pay a fine of four strings of the small coins of Java.

If any of the crew quarrel and, drawing weapons, go aft beyond the ship's well, they may be put to death, or if secured be fined one mas or 5 strings of the small coins of Java.

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If any of the crew quarrel, and one pursue another as far as the poop, even without drawing weapons, it shall be lawful to put them to death, but if he be secured he shall be fined 2 laxes and 7 strings of the small coins of Java (pitis).

If an officer (kiwi) quarrel with the commander and come as far aft as the poop, it shall be lawful to put him to death, but if he be secured and humbles himself before the commander, bowing his head and asking forgiveness, he shall only be fined 4 strings of the small coins of Java, and be made, as soon as he arrives at port, to give the commander a buffalo and a feast to himself and the crew.

When a vessel arrives at a port, the commander shall have the exclusive privilege of trading for 4 days, before the rest of the crew, after this the pilot and the officers shall trade for 2 days, and afterwards the trade shall be free to the whole of the crew.

In making purchases no one shall be permitted to outbid the commander.

If any one of the officers or the crew outbid another in the purchase of goods, he shall not be permitted to retain the goods Bo purchased, but they should be given to the first purchaser.

If the commander of a ship when at sea desire to put in at an island, bay or cave, he shall be considered blameable if he do not consult with the whole crew thereupon.

If the commander of a vessel desire to cross over from one shore to another, it shall be in the like manner incumbent upon him to consult with the crew.

If the breadth of a vessel's beam be from 3 to 4 fathoms, the allowance of tonnage to each ordinary man of the crew shall be one coyan. If the breadth of the beam be 2 fathoms and a half, such allowance shall only be half a coyan, and if the breadth of the beam be no more than 2 fathoms, the allowance shall be 300 gan tangs.

If it should be late in the season and the commander after receiving seven days warning from the officers does not sail, the whole responsibility shall rest upon himself.

If a vessel have lost the season from the neglect of the commander, he shall be compelled to make good to the crew the freight of their respective allotments of tonnage.

If the season should be far spent, and the officers of a vessel occasion delay on account of the recovery of their debts or otherwise, the commander after giving 7 days' warning may sail without them, without incurring any penalty.

If in such a case the season should not have been very far advanced, the commander shall wait for the officers 7 additional days.

When the season is not far spent, the commander after making the signal for sailing shall wait 10 days for the pilot or other officers and 3 days for the crew.

If an officer resolves to quit the ship at a bay, cove or island, he shall forfeit the freight of his allotment of tonnage.

If a man give charge of the compartment of the vessel containing his goods to another, and they be lost, the person receiving charge shall be compelled to make good half of the loss, the owner producing competent witnesses or making oath.

If any one presumes to sit at his ease on the prow of the vessel with his legs dangling down and looking towards the poop, he shall be deemed to have committed grievous offence and to be wanting in respect to the commander and the crew, and he shall be punished with seven blows, and a fine of one gold tahil and one paha.

If any one of the crew make use of a mirror, placing it opposite the poop of the vessel, he shall, out of respect to the wives or concubines of the commander who might thereby be seen, be punished by seven stripes and a fine of one gold tahil and one paha.

If a man fish at the bow of a vessel while at anchor with a hook and line, and the line be carried down towards the stern and be taken hold of by any one, and the fisher mistake the resistance occasioned thereby for a fish and pull, and the person be hooked, such person shall become his property, even if the concubine of the commander.

96 Sketch

OF THE

Ehto-lingga Abchipelago.*

By G. F. Db Bruyn Kops. Lieutenant, Dutch R. If.

Befoee describing the population and what has relation thereto, this will be the most convenient opportunity to say something of the different inhabited places which are found in this Archipelago.

The most important is the seat of the residency, Biouw, lying on Tanjong Pinang. Although small, it is a pretty place, lying on a deep bay or rather mouth of a strait. It is agreeably situated, surrounded by hilly ground generally cultivated, varied by the fort Kroon-prins, some detached groups of trees and Chinese graves. In the inner harbour, especially, there is a very pretty panorama. The residency house, a neat building under high trees, lies on the shore, at the foot of the hill on which is placed the fort, which crowns the whole with its shining white walls. There is a flagstaff on this hill, serving as a telegraph for ships coming in. This hill runs with a steep point into the sea. Behind it is seen an undulating back ground with the high trees of Batu Itam. On both sides of the residency house, are the European residences of the officials, all surrounded by gardens containing many trees, and succeeding them, on the edge of the bay, Malay houses, raised some feet from the ground on stone or wooden pillars. Further on is the campong of the Amoy Chinese, and some native campongs, together with the small islet Bajam in the middle of the bay. On the west side the eye rests on the island Peningat or Mars, with its two hills, scattered campong, white mosque with four turrets, a small battery, a white mausoleum and other buildings. Between Mars and Tanjong Pinang, along the strait, we see the small island Soreh, entirely covered with cocoanut trees and the low Tanjong Stemu; on the other side of Mars, we see Terkoli, and behind it Pulo Loban, and the entrance of Bhio Strait; a little further on Pulo Loos, and Sengarang with the stone quarry, and not far from it, to the north, the extended campong of the Canton Chinese, with its numerous huts covered with attap, built close to each other; and beyond that a Bugis campong. Further up is

* Continued from p. 102, vol. viii.

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