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National and State
New and Revised Edition
B. A. HINSDALE, Ph.D., LL.D.
PROFESSOR OF THE SCIENCE AND THE ART OF TEACHING IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHI-
THE "WORKS OF JAMES ABRAM GARFIELD"
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
THE Study of Political Science has received a great impulse in the United States since the Civil War. In the schools, the change is particularly marked. This is owing to the direct influence of the War, to the increasing number and difficulty of political problems attending the development of society, and to the growth of interest in human questions all over the civilized world.
The change in the character of the work done in schools is almost as marked as the change in its quantity. A generation ago, such work was practically limited to the study of the Constitution of the United States, carried on in a very narrow way.
The sole text-book was the traditionary “Civil Government” that still lingers in some schools. This the introduction of the historical and scientific methods of investigation and teaching has changed for the better. The field of study has continued to widen until, in the best schools, it can 110 longer be covered even by the ablest students, and it has become a serious matter to know what portion of it to cultivate.
As the result of much experience both as a student and a teacher of the subject, the author is of the opinion that, not only in the High School and the Academy, but also in the College, the American Government should still be the central subject of study in this field. This opinion he holds on both practical and pedagogical grounds. He is further of the opinion, that this study should embrace a comprehensive view of the origin and growth of the American Government, and an adequate historical and exegetical commentary upon our dual Constitution, National and State. He has accordingly attempted to furnish a text-book embodying these ideas.
The university student may profitably study books devoted to the principles of Constitutional Law; but such a treatise is not the text. book that the average college student, with his power of generalization aud compass of facts, needs. He will find a careful study of the Constitution of the United States, accompanied by suitable historical discussion and illustration, far more profitable than constitutional
disquisitions. Hence, the central position in this book is assigned to the National Constitution. Still, it is not so much the Constitution as a document written in 1787, as the Constitution developed by the life of the people and construed by Congress, by the Executive, and by the Courts as shown in our Legislative, Administrative, and Juridical history. It is the living and working Constitution that concerns the American youth, and not simply a document; the Constitution in action, and not the Constitution in a book. Hence the author has striven, in accord with the later and better tendency in treating such subjects, to make his book strong in its historical elements. Constitutions are not made, they grow.
Hitherto the National Government has occupied disproportionate attention in teaching the American Government. The States have almost fallen out of sight. In this treatise, due prominence has been given to the fact that this Government is dual or federal, and that the citizen has two loyalties and two patriotisms. It is written in the spirit of the aphorism: An Indestructible Union composed of Indestructible States. The growth of this dual system has been traced from its roots in the first feeble English settlements planted in Virginia and Massachusetts. But it has not been thought necessary, or even desirable, to describe the State system at as much length as the National system.
It would have been easy greatly to extend the references to books. But an over-extended Literature commonly defeats its own ends. The common student especially is lost in the multitude of titles cited. The aim has therefore been to make a helpful bibliography rather than an extensive one.
Due pains have been taken to secure accuracy of fact and statement; but, as a matter of course, errors will creep into a book that contains so much matter-of-fact material as this one contains.
With these words of explanation, the author commends “The American Government” to the consideration of students and teachers of this most engaging and important branch of knowledge.
B. A. HINSDALE. The University of Michigan, June 1, 1891.
PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION.
The material parts of the preface to the First Edition of this Work have been retained. This New Edition has been revised throughout, and is printed wholly from new plates. Some important changes have been made, as follows:
1. Old matter has been somewhat differently distributed; for example, a number of topics have been transferred from Part III. to Part I, and some of the chapters have been divided.
2. Many paragraphs have been wholly rewritten in the interest either of greater clearness or of greater fullness of treatment, and still other paragraphs have been divided or consolidated.
3. Many new paragraphs and several new chapters have been introduced. Mention may be made of Chapters XII.-XV., which form a general introduction to Part II.
4. The bibliographies have been broken up, and, as a rule, distributed to the particular chapters to which they relate. A Bibli. ographical Index also has been added.
5. Some very general suggestions to teachers that were before put in the Preface, have been considerably expanded and assigned a separate place in the volume.
With these additional explanations, THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT is again commended to the consideration of students and teachers.
The thanks of the author are due to Dr. A. R. Benton, of Butler University, Professors E. B. Wakefield and C. M. Young, of Hiram College and the University of South Dakota respectively (both his former pupils at Hiram College), Professor F. H. White, of the State Agricultural College, of Kansas, and Professor A. C. McLaughlin, of the University of Michigan, for valuable suggestions in making the revision.
The University of Michigan, June , 1895.