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Copyright, 1913,
By A. T. MAHAN.

All rights reserved

Published, October, 1913

THE UNIversity Press, CAMBRIDGE, MAss., U.S. A.

PREFACE

THE contents of this volume were first contributed as a chapter, under the title of “Major Operations, 1762–1783,” to the “History of the Royal Navy,” in seven volumes, published by Messrs. Sampson Low, Marston, and Company, under the general editorship of the late Sir William Laird Clowes. For permission to republish now in this separate form, the author has to express his thanks to the publishers of that work.

In the Introduction following this Preface, the author has summarized the general lesson to be derived from the course of this War of American Independence, as distinct from the particular discussion and narration of the several events which constitute the body of the treatment. These lessons he conceives to carry admonition for the present and future based upon the surest foundations; namely, upon the experience of the past as applicable to present conditions. The essential similarity between the two is evident in a common dependence upon naval strength.

There has been a careful rereading and revision of the whole text; but the changes found necessary to be made are much fewer than might have been anticipated after the lapse of fifteen years. Numerous footnotes in the History, specifying the names of ships in fleets, and of their commanders in various battles, have been omitted, as not necessary to the present purpose, though eminently proper and indeed indispensable to an extensive work of general reference and of encyclopaedic scope, such as the History is. Certain notes retained with the inititials W. L. C. are due to

the editor of that work. A. T. MAHAN. DECEMBER, 1912.

28.1293

CONTENTS

PAGE

PREF AcE . - - - - - - - - - - V

List of Illustrations . - - - - xix

List of MAPs . - - - - - - - - - . xxi

List of BATTLE-PLANs . - - - - - - - . xxiii

INTRODUCTION

THE TENDENCY OF WARS TO SPREAD

Macaulay quoted on the action of Frederick the Great . - 1

Illustration from Conditions of the Turkish Empire. - - 2

Lesson from the Recent War in the Balkans, 1912–1913 . - - 2

The War of American Independence a striking example of the Ten-

dency of Wars to Spread . - - - - - - - 3

Origin and Train of Events in that War, Traced . - - - 3

Inference as to possible Train of Future Events in the History of the

United States . - - - - - - - - - 4

The Monroe Doctrine Simply a Formulated Precaution against the

Tendency of Wars to Spread . - - - - - - 4

National Policy as to Asiatic Immigration - - - - . 4

Necessity of an Adequate Navy if these two National Policies are to

be sustained - - - - - - - - - - 4-r

Dependence on Navy Illustrated in the Two Great National Crises;

in the War of Independence and in the War of Secession 4-

The United States not great in Population in proportion to Territory 5

Nor Wealthy in Proportion to exposed Coast-Line . - - 5

Special Fitness of a Navy to meet these particular conditions . 5

The Pacific a great World Problem, dependent mainly on Naval 5

Power. - - - - - - - - - - - 5-

CIIAPTER I

THE NAVAL CAMPAIGN ON LAKE CHAMPLAIN

1775–1776

Preponderant effect of Control of the Water upon the Struggle for

American Independence . - - - - - - 6

Deducible then from Reason and from Experience . - - 6

PAGre

:

Relief of the Place by British Navy . - - - - -

Arnold Retreats to Crown Point - - - - - - -

Arnold's Schemes and Diligence to create a Lake Navy, 1776. -

Difficulties to be overcome - - - - - - - -

Superior Advantages of the British . - - - - - -

The British by building acquire Superiority, but too late for effect

in 1776 - - - - - -

Ultimate Consequences from this Retardation . - - - -

Constitution of the Naval Force raised by Arnold . - - -

He moves with it to the foot of Lake Champlain - - - -

Takes position for Defence at Valcour Island .

Particular Difficulties encountered by British .

Constitution of the British Lake Navy . - - - -

Land Forces of the Opponents . - - - - -

Naval Forces of the Two at the Battle of Valcour Island .

Magnitude of the Stake at Issue - - - - - -

Arnold's Purposes and Plans . - - - - - -

Advance of the British . - - - - - - -

Arnold's Disposition of his Flotilla to receive Attack

The Battle of Valcour Island . - - - - -

The Americans Worsted - - - - -

Arnold Retreats by night Undetected - - - -

Pursuit by the British - - - - - - - - -

Destruction of the American Vessels - - - - -

British Appreciation of the Importance of the Action, as shown

Criticism of the conduct of the Opposing Leaders . - - -

Arnold's Merit and Gallantry . - - - - - - -

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