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of Commerce, shall be satisfied that the muster list has been prepared for the vessel. It shall be posted in several parts of the vessel, and in particular in the crew's quarters.
The muster list shall assign duties to the different members of the crew in connection with
(a) The closing of the water-tight doors, valves, and so forth. (b) The equipment of the boats and rafts generally. (c) The launching of the boats attached to davits.
(d) The general preparation of the other boats and the pontoon rafts.
(e) The muster of the passengers. (f) The extinction of fire.
The muster list shall assign to the members of the stewards' department their several duties in relation to the passengers at a time of emergency. These duties shall include
(a) Warning the passengers.
(b) Seeing that they are dressed and have put on their life jackets in a proper manner.
(c) Assembling the passengers.
(d) Keeping order in the passages and on the stairways, and, generally, controlling the movements of the passengers.
The muster list shall specify definite alarm signals for calling all the crew to the boat and fire stations, and shall give full particulars of these signals.
MUSTERS AND DRILLS.
Musters of the crews at their boat and fire stations, followed by boat and fire drills, respectively, shall be held at least once a week, either in port or at sea. An entry shall be made in the official log book of these drills, or of the reason why they could not be held.
Different groups of boats shall be used in turn at successive boat drills. The drills and inspections shall be so arranged that the crew thoroughly understand and are practiced in the duties they have to perform, and that all the boats and pontoon rafts on the ship with the gear appertaining to them are always ready for immediate use.
LIFE JACKETS AND LIFE BUOYS.
A life jacket of an approved type, or other appliance of equal buoyancy and capable of being fitted on the body, shall be carried for every person on board, and, in addition, a sufficient number of life jackets, or other equivalent appliances, suitable for children.
First. A life jacket shall satisfy the following conditions: (a) It shall be of approved material and construction.
(b) It shall be capable of supporting in fresh water for twentyfour hours fifteen pounds avoirdupois of iron.
Life jackets the buoyancy of which depends on air compartments are prohibited.
Second. A life buoy shall satisfy the following conditions:
(b) It shall be capable of supporting in fresh water for twentyfour hours at least thirty-one pounds avoirdupois of iron.
Life buoys filled with rushes, cork shavings, or granulated cork, or any other loose granulated material, or whose buoyancy depends upon air compartments which require to be inflated, are prohibited. Mar. 4, 1915, sec. 14.)
Third. The minimum number of life buoys with which vessels are to be provided is fixed as follows:
Vessels under one hundred feet in length, minimum number of buoys, two; vessels one hundred feet and less than two hundred feet in length, minimum number of buoys, four, of which two shall be luminous; vessels two hundred feet and less than three hundred feet in length, minimum number of buoys, six, of which two shall be luminous; vessels three hundred feet and less than four hundred feet in length, minimum number of buoys, twelve, of which four shall be luminous; vessels four hundred feet and less than six hundred feet in length, minimum number of buoys, eighteen, of which nine shall be luminous; vessels six hundred feet and less than eight hundred feet in length, minimum number of buoys, twenty-four, of which twelve shall be luminous; vessels eight hundred feet and over in length, minimum number of buoys, thirty, of which fifteen shall be luminous.
Fourth. All the buoys shall be fitted with beckets securely seized. Where two buoys only are carried one shall be fitted with a life line at least fifteen fathoms in length, and where more than two buoys are carried at least one buoy on each side shall be fitted with a life line of at least fifteen fathoms in length. The lights shall be efficient self-igniting lights which can not be extinguished in water, and they shall be kept near the buoys to which they belong, with the necessary means of attachment. Mar. 4, 1915, sec. 14; June 12, 1916.)
( Fifth. All the life buoys and life jackets shall be so placed as to be readily accessible to the persons on board; their position shall be plainly indicated so as to be known to the persons concerned.
The life buoys shall always be capable of being rapidly cast loose, and shall not be permanently secured in any way. The owner of any vessel who neglects or refuses to provide and equip his vessel with such lifeboats, floats, rafts, life preservers, line-carrying projectiles, and the means of propelling them, drags, pumps, or other appliances, as are required under the provisions of this section, or under the regulations of the Board of Supervising Inspectors, approved by the Secretary of Commerce, authorized by and made pursuant hereto, shall be fined not less than $500, nor more than $5,000, and every master of a vessel who shall fail to comply with the requirements of this section, and the regulations of the Board of Supervising Inspectors, approved by the Secretary of Commerce, authorized by and made pursuant hereto, shall upon conviction be fined not less than $50, nor more than $500. (Mar. 4, 1915, sec. 14.) Stairways and Deck Room.
Every such steam-vessel carrying passengers on the main-deck shall be provided with permanent stairways and other sufficient means, convenient to the passengers, for their escape to their upper deck, in case of the vessel sinking or of other accident endangering
life; and in the stowage of freight upon such deck, where passengers are carried, gangways or passages, sufficiently large to allow persons to pass freely through them, shall be left open both fore and aft of the vessel, and also to and along the guards on each side. (R. S., 4484.)
The captain or mate of every such steam-vessel carrying passengers upon the main-deck shall assign to all deck-passengers, when taking passage, the space on deck they may occupy during the voyage, and such space shall not thereafter be occupied by freight, nor overcrowded by other persons, nor shall freight be stowed about the boilers or machinery, in such a manner as to obstruct or prevent the engineer from readily attending to his duties. (R. S., 4485.)
For every violation of the provisions of the two preceding sections the owners of the vessel shall be punished by a fine of three hundred dollars. (R. S., 4486.) Wire Tiller Ropes.
Every steamer carrying passengers shall be provided with such tiller ropes, tiller rods, or chains for the purpose of steering and navigating the vessel, and such bell-pulls for signalizing the engineer from the pilot house, and such tubes or other arrangement to repeat back the signal to the pilot house, as may be prescribed by the board of supervising inspectors, with the approval of the Secretary of Commerce. (R. S., 4480; Mar. 3, 1905, sec. 2.) Protection Against Fire.
Every steamer carrying passengers or freight shall be provided with suitable pipes and valves attached to the boiler to convey steam into the hold and to the different compartments thereof to extinguish fire, or such other suitable apparatus as may be prescribed by the regulations of the board of supervising inspectors, with the approval of the Secretary of Commerce, for extinguishing fire in the hold and compartments thereof by the introduction through pipes into such hold and compartments of carbonic acid gas or other fire-extinguishing gas or vapor; and every stove used on board of any such vessel shall be well and securely fastened, so as to prevent it from being moved or overthrown, and all woodwork or other ignitible substances about the boilers, chimneys, cook houses, and stovepipes, exposed to ignition shall be thoroughly shielded by some incombustible material in such a manner as to leave the air to circulate freely between such material and woodwork or other ignitible substance; and before granting a certificate of inspection the inspector shall require all other necessary provisions to be made throughout such vessels to guard against loss or danger from fire. (R. S., 4470; Mar. 3, 1905, sec. 7.)
Every steamer permitted by her certificate of inspection to carry as many as fifty passengers, or upward, and every steamer carrying passengers, which also carries cotton, hay, or hemp, shall be provided with a good double-acting steam fire-pump, or other equivalent apparatus for throwing water. Such pump or other apparatus for throwing water shall be kept at all times and at all seasons of the year in good order and ready for immediate use, having at least two pipes of suitable dimensions, one on each side of the vessel, to convey the water to the upper decks, to which pipes there shall be attached,
by means of stop-cocks or valves, both between decks and on the upper deck, good and suitable hose of sufficient strength to stand a pressure of not less than one hundred pounds to the square inch, long enough to reach to all parts of the vessel and properly provided with nozzles, and kept in good order and ready for immediate service. Every steamer exceeding two hundred tons burden and carrying passengers shall be provided with two good double-acting fire-pumps, to be worked by hand; each chamber of such pumps, except pumps upon steamers in service on the twenty-eighth day of February, eighteen hundred and seventy-one, shall be of sufficient capacity to contain not less than one hundred cubic inches of water; and such pumps shall be placed in the most suitable parts of the vessel for efficient service, having suitable well-fitted hose to each pump, of at least one-half the vessel in length, kept at all times in perfect order, and shipped up and ready for immediate use. On every steamer not
. exceeding two hundred tons, one of such pumps may be dispensed with. Each fire-pump thus prescribed shall be supplied with water by means of a suitable pipe connected therewith, and passing through the side of the vessel so low as to be at all times under water when she is afloat. Every steamer shall also be provided with a pump which shall be of sufficient strength and suitably arranged to test the boilers thereof. (R. S. 4471; June 30, 1906.)
Every steamer carrying passengers during the night-time shall keep a suitable number of watchmen in the cabins, and on each deck, to guard against fire or other dangers, and to give alarm in case of accident or disaster. (R. S., 4477.)
For any neglect to keep the watchmen required by the preceding section, the license of the officer in charge of the vessel for the time being shall be revoked; and every owner of such vessel who neglects or refuses to furnish the number of men necessary to keep watch as required, shall be fined one thousand dollars. (R. S., 4478.)
The board of supervising inspectors may require steamers carrying either passengers or freight to be provided with such number and kind of good and efficient portable fire-extinguishers as, in the judgment of the board, may be necessary to protect them from fire when such steamers are moored or lying at a wharf without steam to work the pumps. (R. S., 4479.)
Every such steam vessel carrying passengers shall keep such fire buckets, axes, and water barrels as shall be prescribed by the regulations established by the board of supervising inspectors, with the approval of the Secretary of Commerce. The buckets and barrels shall be kept in convenient places and filled with water, to be in readiness in case of fire, and the axes shall be kept in good order and ready for immediate use. Tanks of suitable dimensions and arrangement, or buckets in sufficient number, may be substituted for barrels. (R. Š., 4483; Mar. 3, 1905, sec. 3.)
Every barge carrying passengers, while in tow of any steamer, shall be subject to the provisions of this Title [R. S., 4399-4500] relating to fire-buckets, axes, life-preservers, and yawls, to such extent as shall be prescribed by the board of supervising inspectors; and for any violation of this section the penalty shall be two hundred dollars, recoverable one-half for the use of the informer. (R. S., Inflammable or Explosive Cargo.
Upon the application of any master or owner of any steam vessel employed in the carriage of passengers, for a license to carry gunpowder, the local inspectors shall examine such vessel, and if they find that she is provided with a chest or safe composed of metal, or entirely lined and sheathed therewith, or if the vessel has one or more compartments thoroughly lined and sheathed with metal, at a secure distance from any fire, they may grant a certificate to that effect, authorizing such vessel' to carry as freight within such chest, safes, or compartments, the article of gunpowder, which certificate shall be kept conspicuously posted on board such vessel. (R. S., 4422; Mar. 4, 1915, sec. 2.)
Nó loose hay, loose cotton, or loose hemp, camphene, nitroglycerin, naphtha, benzine, benzole, coal oil, crude or refined petroleum, or other like explosive burning fluids, or like dangerous articles, shall be carried as freight or used as stores on any steamer carrying passengers; nor shall baled cotton or hemp be carried on such steamers unless the bales are compactly pressed and thoroughly covered and secured in such manner as shall be prescribed by the regulations established by the board of supervising inspectors with the approval of the Secretary of Commerce; nor shall gunpowder be carried on any such vessel except under special license; nor shall oil or vitriol, nitric or other chemical acids be carried on such steamers except on the decks or guards thereof or in such other safe part of the vessel as shall be prescribed by the inspectors. Refined petroleum, which will not ignite at a temperature less than one hundred and ten degrees of Fahrenheit thermometer, may be carried on board such steamers upon routes where there is no other practicable mode of transporting it, and under such regulations as shall be prescribed by the board of supervising inspectors with the approval of the Secretary of Commerce; and oil or spirits of turpentine may be carried on such steamers when put up in good metallic vessels or casks or barrels well and securely bound with iron and stowed in a secure part of the vessel; and friction matches may be carried on such steamers when securely packed in strong, tight chests or boxes, the covers of which shall be well secured by locks, screws, or other reliable fastenings, and stowed in a safe part of the vessel at a secure distance from any fire or heat. All such other provisions shall be made on every steamer carrying passengers or freight, to guard against and extinguish fire, as shall be prescribed by the board of supervising inspectors and approved by the Secretary of Commerce. Nothing in the foregoing or following sections of this Act shall prohibit the transportation by steam vessels of gasoline or any of the products of petroleum when carried by motor vehicles (commonly known as automobiles) using the same as a source of motive power: Provided, however, That all fire, if any, in such vehicles or automobiles be extinguished immediately after entering the said vessel, and that the same be not relighted until immediately before said vehicle shall leave the vessel: Provided further, That any owner, master, agent, or other person having charge of passenger steam vessels shall have the right to refuse to transport automobile vehicles the tanks of which contain gasoline, naphtha, or other dangerous burning fluids. (R. S., 4472; Mar. 3, 1905, sec. 8.)