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that the removal of a foot into a cold part of the bd, after the body has become waim in bed, shall bring on acute pain in the bowels; and yet no pain is produced in getting into bed, though the temperature be the same, and perhaps lower, than that of the part into which the foot is removed; and, probably, total immersion into cold water would not produce any pain in the bowels. The laws of such phe. nomena, however deserving of investigation, haye, as yet, scarcely been an object of attention with pathologists. It is probable that the phænomena, in any given case, are regulated by two circumstances: first, by the excess of heat (or the strength of the stimulus, whatever it be), to which the greater part of the body is exposed, above that to which the smaller is exposed. The second circumstance is the dif. ference between the extent of the heated and cooled surfaces. When the latter is not extremely minute, and yet confined within moderate limits, the inflammatory effects seem to be considerable. Should the circumstances be reversed, and a stream of air, so warm as to convey heat to the body, instead of carrying it away, play upon a small part of its surface, the rest being exposed to a moderate or a low temperature, it is probable the result would be the same as when moderate cold succeeds to warmth, i. e. no bad effect would follow.
Account of the Manner of treating
TO form a colony of bees, a spot of ground is chosen for the hives,
exposed towards the south or southeast, well sheltered from the northen blasts, and surrounded with shrubs and flowers; of the latter, the best is rosemary. The richer the neighbouring grounds are the better, for bees are said to range for food to the distance of a league from their homes. The situation being chosen, lanes must be cut through the shrubby thickets of five or six feet wide. The fences between the lanes should be about the same dimensions, and formed at intervals into small recesses, like bowers or niches, to receive the hives.
The figures of the hives used here in general are cylindrical; in height about twenty-seven inches by fourteen diameter. They are formed of the rind of the cork tree, and covered with a pan of earthenware inverted, the edge of which projects over the hive like a cornice. The whole is fastened with pegs made of some hard and durable wood, and the joints stopped with peat. In the front of the cylinder, at the height of about eight inches, there is a small aper. ture where the bees enter. The inside is divided into three equal divisions, which are separated by cross sticks: here the bees form their combs or cells.
When the bees swarm, which is usualy in the month of May or June, the hives are placed to receive them where they light. If they descend on a tree, they are shaken off: the person who performs this operation must not be afraid of them: as they do not commonly sting unless they are irritated; it will be safer, however, to cover the head with a wire-mask, and the hands with gloves.
Some bees are so wild, that they fly
fly away in attempting to collect them, but they may be caught again in this manner: a sheet is placed by night on the ground cons tiguous to the swarm, and when they alight, the hive is placed over them, with the entrance stopped; then the whole is covered with a sheet, in which they are carried home. But they should not be placed near the hive whence they had originally departed.
When the time arrives for taking out the honey-combs, which is generally in the month of June, when the flowers begin to decay, it should be done in the heat of the day, as the greater part of the bees are then abroad, but not during a high wind, or at the commence. ment of a new or full moon. The hiver must have his face and hands defended as above-mentioned, and accompanied by a person holding a chaffing-dish, with a coal fire, covered with moist peat, to make the greater smoke: the smoke be. ing infused among the bees from the top of the cylinder, they fly away, or remain intoxicated at the bottom. Then the hive is taken to pieces by drawing out the pins. The combs are cut out without destroying the bees, except two cells, which are left around the hive; and, lest the bees should feed on what remains, the incision is covered with pulverised clay: after this, the hive is put together as before
The combs should not be taken out but when they are full of honey; it is rarely good the first year the bees assemble. In the months of March and August the wax is
taken out, which is lodged in the first division of the hive, after which the bees form other combs, and generate a young colony.
The hiver should often visit the ground, and repair any accidents that have happened. If snakes frequent the place, they should not be killed, since they do not molest the bees, but destroy the toads and lizards, which are obnoxious to them.
When the hives are decayed, they are taken asunder and fu migated; then the bees forsake their habitations and take shelter in an adjoining hive, previously prepared for that purpose. This should be performed in the spring, when the flowers begin to open and afford them succour. The same method may be used in taking out the honey; but if repeatedly practised, it will extinguish the colony.
As the bees, in returning from their excursions, are loaded and fatigued, there should be nothing near the hives to obstruct their descent, which is not in a perpendicular course, but in an oblique one.
On Plica Polonica by Mr. Frederick Hoffman. From the Memoirs of the Manchester Society.
SYNONYMS. Lues Pocusiensis*: Tri ca: Trichoma. PoL. Koldun or Gozdz. GERMAN. Juden-zopf: wichtel-z pff: wixel-zorff: weichel-zorff.
DISEASES, the tendency of which is fatal, and the occurrence
• Pokusia is a territory of Poland.
frequent, peculiarly claim the at tention of the practical physician; while morbid affections which appear more rarely, and present un usual phænomena, more especially attract the inquiries of those whose object is the extension of general science. The discase termed Plica Polonica is of the latter class. It is endemic in Poland; and seldom, if ever, observed in any other part of Europe. During a long stay at Breslau in Silesia, I had frequent opportunities of observing this disease, and, as it is at present little known in Britain, I trust a brief narration of the principal circum. stances connected with it will not prove uninteresting.
Both sexes are equally liable to the attacks of Plica. It usually appears during infancy; and but seldom after the age of twenty. When once produced, it continues during the remainder of life. The accession of the complaint is in ge. neral preceded by irregular spasmodic affections, pains in different parts of the body, a slow fever, and various diseases of the eyes; all which cease immediately on the appearance of the Plica.
The disorder consists in a præternatural rapid growth of the hair, with a copious secretion of a viscid matter from its bulbs. For the most part, the hairs of the head are alone affected; and that only in peculiar parts. In these, the hairs grow considerably longer than in the rest; and are knotted and entangled with each other; being also covered with the viscid matter which issues from their roots, and which assists in gluing them together.
In proportion as the quantity of
this gluten, and the implication of the hair increases, it is still more and more difficult to clean and comb it; hence a degree of phthiriasis is produced, and the head contracts an extremely fœtid smell, to which however the Polish peasants are so much accustomed, that they endure it without complaint, or any manifest inconvenience.
It is also an opinion universally prevalent with them, that the discase is a salutary effort of nature to expel a morbid matter from the body; and that to interrupt the course of it would be productive of imminent danger; hence they make no attempt to cure, or even palliate the complaint. And if we may repose confidence in authors of established reputation, morbid af fections of a similar nature to those which precede its occurrence, paralysis, and even death itself, have succeeded imprudent attempts to check the progress of the disease.
In this respect,
Plica bears some analogy to the exanthemata, and various chronic cutaneous eruptions.
I am as yet unable to decide whether this complaint is heredi. tary or not. From some observations indeed it appears, that a predisposition to it may be transmitted from parents to their offspring; but my information on this head is too limited to ascertain the point. In one case which fell under my own observation, two brothers had Plica, both on the left side of the head, and in about one third of their hairs: I learned from them, that their father and grandfather had also been affected with the disease in a form exactly similar.
Besides the h man species, other animals are subject to this com. plaint. It appears in some of the finest horses in Poland. In them it is situated in th mane, and some times in the long hairs around the hoof and fetlock joint. It attacks also the different species of the canine genus; dogs, wolves, and foxes. Previous to its occurrence in the first, the symptoms of rabies usually appear the tail is dropped between the hind legs, there is a flow of frothy saliva from the mouth, the sight and appetite are impaired or entirely lost; they are, snappish, and disposed to bite, but their bite does not produce hy. drophobia. The wolf is affected in the same manner; he leaves his wonted concealments in the woods, and runs wildly among the hocks, biting, and destroying them, but without producing hydrophobia.
The impossibility of ascertaining, the true causes of this singular disease, has given rise to several vague conjectures on the subject; as that of Le Fontaine, who attributes it to a corruption of the fat.
It is somewhat remarkable, that Plica takes place only among the lower class of people; whence some bave conceived, that it is to be considered merely as a consequence of .uncleanliness.
But, in objection to this opinion, it may be urged, that it is un. known in the adjoining countries subject to the Prussian Government, where the peasants are habituated to the same customs and mode of life, or nearly the same, as in Poland-that its appearance affords evident relief to the system, and its retrocession is productive of dangerous consequences. The idea that it is a real and idiopathic disease,
is confirmed also by its occurrence in a variety of animals, and by the circumstance of its being confined to particular parts of the head; for which no reason can be assigned on the former supposition.
A peculiarity of climate cannot be adduced as a cause of this disease. Poland differs little in this respect from the adjoining countries. The summer heat is considerable, the thermometer rising frequently to 98°. Ico. 104. and the cold in winter so great, that it falls some. times 10, 15 degrees below o. But though the changes in the atmo sphere are so remarkable, at dif ferent periods of the year, they take place with the utmost regu larity, the temperature passing, by insensible degrees, from one extreme to the other.
The Poles themselves are a vigorous, hardy race; inured from infancy to labour, and to exposure to the vicissitudes of the atmo. sphere; almost regardless of cold, they frequently sleep in the open air. Their diet consists chiefly of animal food, and they are much addicted to the use of spirits. They have an equal fondness for other strong stimulating liquids. I have seen them drink, with the greatest pleasure, the salt brine in which herrings have been preserved, and even nitrous acid diluted with
of reputation, that Plica is frequent in Tartary; and that it was brought into Poland in the 13th century by the Tartars, who at that period made frequent irruptions into the eastern parts of Europe.
A perfect confidence in the liberality and candour of a society, the exertions of which have added considerably to the treasure of science, encourages me to submit to it these few crude and cursory remarks; trusting that the most trivial contribution to the general stock, will not be deemed unworthy its attention. At some future period I hope to have opportunity and leisure to renew my observations on the subject; and I shall endeavour to supply the deficiencies of the present sketch, by transmitting to the society the result of my future remarks.
On the Power of the fixed Alkaline
ICAME to the knowledge of the above-mentioned power of alkaline salts, I may say, accidentally I had a wish to procure some kind of alkaline liquor that might be safely taken for the purpose of correcting acidities in the stomach. I knew that a solution of salt of tartar was exceedingly offensive to the taste; and that, if it was of strength sufficient to neutralize any quantity of acid in the stomach, it could not be swallowed without danger to the passages, from its causticity. It occurred to me, that its causticity might proba.
bly arise from its having a strong affinity to something or other, to get at which it burned or destroyed the texture of the flesh. If this should be the case, it was natural to suppose, that this salt, if intimately mixed with flesh, would saturate itself with whatever it was that it had such a strong appetite for; and, being 30 saturated, it would act no farther on our flesh, and might, without danger, be taken inwardly. To try this, I first enclosed some bits of lean raw mutton in a vial, with a strong solution of salt of tartar: but, after standing several days, no such alteration as I expected appeared in the liquor. 1 was willing to account for this, by supposing the salt had a greater affinity to the water than to any thing in the flesh; I therefore cut some flesh from the breast of a turkey, roasted the day before, and made it as dry as I could; this I pounded in a mortar, adding, by degrees, some dry and finely-powdered salt of tartar*, until I thought there was enough, for I had no rule to judge by. The mixture grew moist; and, when it was sufficiently pounded, I spread it into a thin cake on an earthen dish, and set it before the fire, where it soon became dry. I found it had then a saponaceous mild taste; for, the taste of the salt was scarcely per. ceptible. Having macerated this flesh in warm water, and poured off the clear liquor, I found it ef fervesced with vinegar, which shewed that the salt was not so far neutralized but that it would unite itself with an acid, so that I considered it as a mild alkaline liquor, such as I sought for. However, that I might have an opinion from
This salt had been sent to me rendered caustic by quick-lime, though I had not desired it.