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that the removal of a foot into a exposed towards the south or southcold part of the t d, after the body east, well sheltered from the norhas become waim 1. bed, shall bring thern biasts, and surrounded with on acute pain in the bowels; and shrubs and flowers; of the latter, yet no pain is produced in gesting the best is rosemary. The richer into bed, though the temperature the neighbouring grounds are the be the same, and perhaps lower, better, tir bees are said to range for than that of the part into which food io the distance of a league from th: foot is removed; and, probabiy, their homes. The situation being total immersion into cold water chosen, lanes must be cut through wouid not produce any pain in the the shrubùy ihickets of tive or six bowels. The laws of such phe- feat wid. The fences bet veen the nomena, however deserving of in- lanes should be about the same di. vestigation, hase, as yet, scarcely mensions, and formed at intervals been an object of attention with pa. into smail recesses, like howers or thologists. It is probable that the niches, to receive the hives. phænomena, in any given case, are The figures of the hives used regulated by two circumstances : here in general are cylindrical; ia first, by the excess of heat (or the height about twenty-seven inches strength of the stimulus, whatever by fourteen diameter. They are it be), to which the greater part formed of the rind of the cork tree, of the body istexposed, above ihat and covered with a pan of earthen. to which the smaller is exposed. ware inverted, the edge of which The second circurristance is the dif- projects over the hive like a corference between the extent of the nice. The whole is fastened with heated and cooled surfaces. When pags made of some hard and durthe latter is non extremely mi. able wood, and the joints stopped nute, and yet contiired within mo. with peat. In the front of the derate limits, the inflammatory cylinder, at the height of about effects seen
to be considerable. eight inches, there is a small aper. Should the circumstances be re- ture where the bees enter. The versed, and a stream of air, so inside is divided into three equal warm as to convey had to the divisions, which are separated by body, instead of carrying it away,
cross sticks : here the bees form play upon a small part of iis sur
their com)s or cells. face, the rest being exposed to a When the bees swarm, which is moderate or a low temperature, it usuiliy in the month of May or is probable the result would be the Jone, the hives are placed to receive same as when moderate cold suc. them where they light. If they ceeds to warmtli, i. e, no bad eifc et descend on a tree, they are shaken would follow.
off: the person who perforins this
operation must not be afraid of Account of the Munner of treati:g them : as they do not commonly
Bees in Portugal. From Murphy's 'sting unless they are irritated; it Travels in that country.
will be safer, however, to cover the
head with a wire-mask, and the TO form a colony of bees, 1 spot hands with gloves. of ground is chosen for the hives, Some bees are so wild, that they
fly away in attempting to collect taken out, which is lodged in the then, but they may be caught first division of the five, after again in this manner: a sheet is which the bees form other combs, placed by night on the ground con. and generate a young colony. tiguous to the gwarm, and when The hiver should often visit the they alight, the hive is placed over ground, and repair any, accidents them, wich the entrance stopped ; that have happened. If. snakes then the whole is covered with a frequent the place, they should not sheet, in which they are carried be killed, since they do not inolest home. But they should not be the bees, but destroy the toads and piaced near the hive whence they lizards, which are obnoxious to had originally departed.
them. When the time arrives for tak. When the hives are decayed, ing out the honey.comhs, which they are taken asunder and fu. is generally in the month of June, migated; then the bees forsake when the flowers begin to decay, their habitations and take shelter i: should be done in the heat of the in an adjoining hive, previously day, as the greater part of the bees prepared for that purpose. This are then abroad, but not during a should be performed in the spring, high wind, or at the commence. when the flowers begin to open ment of a new or full moon. The and afford them succour. The same hiver must have his face and hands method may be used in taking defended as above-mentioned, and out the honey ; but if repeatedly accompanied by a person holding practised; it will extinguish the a chatting dish, with a coal fire, colony. covered with moist poat, to make As the bees, in return ng from the greater smoke: the smoke be. their excursions, are loaded and ing infused among the bees from fatigued, there should be nothing the top of the cylinder, they fly anear the hives to obstruct their away; or remain intoxicated at the descent, which is not in a perpen. bottom. Then the hive is taken dicular course; but 'in an oblique 10 pieces by drawing out the pins. one. The combs are cut out without de. stroying the bees, excep: two cells, which are left around the hive; On Plica Polonica by Mr. Frederick and, lest the bees should feed on Hoffman. From the Memoirs of what remains, the incision is co. the Manchester Society. vered with pulverised clay : after this, the hive is put together as
SYNONYMS. Lues Pocusiensis*: Tria before
cæ : Trichoma. Por. Koldur or The combs should not be taken
Gozdz. GERMAN. 7uden.zopf: out but when they are full of ho. wichtel-z pff: wixel-297f: weicha ney ; ic is rarely good the first year
el-zarf. the beas assemble. In the months
DISEASES, the tendency of of March and August the wax is which is fatal, and the occurrence
frequent, peculiarly claim the at. this gluten, and the implication of te: tion of the practical physician; the hair increases, it is still more while morbid affections which ap. and more dificult to clean and pear more rarely, and present un- combit; hence a degree of phibi. usual phenomena, more especially riasis is produced, and the head attract the inquiries of those whose contracts an extremely færid smell, object is the extension of general to which however the Polish p22. science. The discase termed Plica are so much accustomel, Polonica is of the latter class. It is that they endure it without comendemic in Poland; and seldom, plaint, or any manifest inconveniif ever, observed in any other part ence. of Europe. During a long stay It is also an opinion universally at Breslau in Silesia, I had frequent prevalent with them, that the dis. opportunities of observing this dis. ease is a salutary effort of nature to case, and, as it is at present little expel a morbid matter from the known in Britain, I trust a brief body ; and that to interrupt the narration of the principal circum. course of it would be productive of stances connected with it will not imminent danger; hence they make prove uninteresting.
no attempt to cure, or even palliate Both sexes are equally liable to the complaint. And if we may the attacks of Plica. It usually repose confidence in authors of appears during infancy; and but sel. established reputation, morbid af. dom after the age of twenty. When fections of a similar nature to once produced, it continues during those which precede its occur. the remainder of life. The ac. rence, paralysis, and even death cession of the complaint is in ge. itself, have succeeded imprudent neral preceded by irregular spas. attempts to check the progress modic affections, pains in differ- of the disease.
In this respect, ent parts of the body, a slow fever, Plica bears some analogy to the and various diseases of the eyes ; exanthemain, and various chronic all which cease immediately on the cutaneous eruprions. appearance of the Prica.
I am as yet unable to decide The disorder consists in a præter. whether this complaint is heredi. natural rapid growth of the hair, tary or not. From soine observa. with a copions secretion of a viscid tions indeed it appears, that a pre. matter from its bulbs. For the disposition to it may be transmitted most part, the hairs of the head from parents to their offspring; are alone affected ; and that only but my information on this head is in peculiar parts. In these, the too limited to ascertain the point. hairs grow considerably longer than In one case which fell under my o:a in the rest; and are knotied and observation, two brothers had Plica, entangled with each other; being both on the left side of the head, also covered with the viscid matter and in about one third of their which issues from their roots, and hairs : I learned from them, that which assists in gluing them to. their father and grandfather had gether.
also been affected with the disease In proportion as the quantity of in a form exactly similar.
Besides the hi man species, other is confirmed also by its occurrence animals are vunject to this com. in a variety of animals, and by the plaint. It a, pears in scale of the circumstance of its being confined to finese horses in Poland. In them it particular parts of the head; for is situated in th mane, and some. which no reason can be assigned tires in the long hairs aro":nd the on the former supposition. hoof and fetlock joint. It attacks A peculiarity of climate cannot also the different species of the be adcuced as a cause of this disease. canine genus; dogs, wolves, and Poland differs little in this respect foxes. Previous io its occurrence from the adjoining counties. The in the first, the symptoms of rabies summer heat is considerable, the usually ap car: the tail is dropped thermometer rising frequently to between the hind legs, there is a 984. 100. 104°. and the cold in flow of frothy saliva from the winter so great, that it falls some. mouth, the sight and appetite are times 10, 15 degrees below o. But impaired or entirely lost ; they are though the changes in the atmo. snappish, and disposed to bite,' sphere are so remarkable, at dif. . but their bite does not produce hyr ferent periods of the year, they drophobia. The wolf is affected take place with the utmost regu. in the same manner; he leaves his larity, ihe temperature passing, by wonied concealments in the wiods, insensible degrees, from one extreme and runs widly among the hocks, to the other. biting, and destroying them, but The Poles themselves are a vi. without producing hydrophobia. gorous, hardy race ; inured from
The impossibility of ascertaining infancy to labour, and to exposure the true causes of this singular dis- to the vicissitudes of the atmo. ease, has given rise to several vague sphere; almost regardless of cold, conjectures on the subject; as that they frequently sleep in the open of Le Fontaine, who attributes it air. Their diet consists chiefly of to a corruption of the fai.
animal food, and they are much It is somewhat remarkable, that addicted to the use of spirits. They Plica takes place oniy among the have an equal fondness for other lower class of people; whence some strong stimulating liquids. I have bave conceived, that it is to be con. seen them drink, with the greatest sidered merely as a consequence of pleasure, the salt brine in which uncleanliness."
herrings have been preserved, and But, in objection to this opinion, even nitrous acid diluted with it may be urged, that it is un. water. known in the adjoining countries
Since no other cause can be subject to the Prussian Govern. assigned for this disease, it is pro. ment, where the peasants are ha- bable that it arises, according bituated to the same customs and to the general opinion, from conmode of life, or nearly the same, as tagion; a contagion which, like
; in Poland--that its appearance that of Psora, can be communicated affords evident relief to the system, by contact only : but this I have and its retrocession is productive of not been able to ascertain by, any dangerous consequences. The idea observations of my own. that it is a real and idiopathic disease, It is said, however, by authors
of reputation, that Plica is frequent bly arise from its having a strong in Tartary; and that it was brought affinity to something or other, to into Poland in the 13th century by get at which it burned or destroyed the Tartars, who at that period ihe texture of the filesh." If this made frequent irruptions into the should be the case, it was natural to eastern parts of Europe.
suppose, that this salt, if intimately A perfect confidence in the libe. mixed with flesh, would saturate rality and candour of a society, itself with whatever it was that it the exertions of which have added had such a strong appetite for; considerably to the treasure of and, being 30 saturated, it would science, encourages me to submit act ro farther on our fiesh, and to it these few crude and cursory might, without danger, be taken remarks ; trusting that the most inwardly. To try this, I first en. trivial contribution to the general closed some bits of lean raw mutton stock, will not be deemed unwor. in a vial, with a strong solution of thy its attention. At some future salt of tartar : bui, alter standing period I hope to have opportuoity several days, no such alteration as and leisure to renew my observa- I expected appeared in the liquor. tions on the subject; and I shall en- I was willing io account for this, deavour to supply the deficiencies by supposing the salt had a greater of the present sketch, by trans- atinity to the water than to any mitting to the society the result of thing in the flesh; I therefore cut my future remarks.
some flesh from the breast of a turkey, roasted the day before, and made
it as dry as I could ; this I pounded On the Power of the fixed Alkaline in a mortar, adding, by degrees,
Salts to preserve the Flesh of some dry and finely-powdered sali Animals from Putrefa&tions, by the of tartar*, until I thought there Rev. Hugh Hamilton. From the
was enough, for I had no rule to Transactions of the Royal Irish judge by. The mixture grew moist; Academy.
and, when it was sufficiently I CAME to the knowledge of pounded, I spread it into a thin the abovementioned power of cake on an earthen dish, and set alkaline salts, I may say, acci. it before the fire, where it soon dentally ; I had a wish to procure became dry. I found it had then a some kind of alkaline liquor that saponaceous mild taste; for, the might be safely taken for the taste of the salt was scarcely per. purpose of correcting acidities in ceprible. Having macerated this the stomach. I knew that a solu- flesh in warm water, and poured tion of salt of tartar was exceedingly off the clear liquor, I found it ef. offensive to the taste; and that, if fervesced with vinegar, which it was of strength sufficient to neu. shewed that the salt was not so far tralize any quantity of acid in the neutralized but that it would unite stoinach, it could not be swallowed itself with an acid, so that I con. without darger to the passages, sidered it as a mild alkaline liquor, from its causticity. It occurred to such as I sought for. However, me, that its causticity might proba. that I might have an opinion from
* This salt had been sent to me rendered caustic by quick-lime, though I had "not desired it.