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Full forty days he passed; whether on hill
Sometimes, anon on shady vale, each night
Under the covert of some ancient oak,
Or cedar, to defend him from the dew.- Paradise Regained.


Ash Wednesday, begins the great and primitive fast of forty days, instituted by Noah, as an eternal beacon to future ages of the providence of God in the preservation of the world : the number of days corresponding with the interval between the settlement of the dove, on Sunday the twelfth of August, and the first day of the New Year (Friday), B.C. 2348. It was probably observed by the Patriarch and his pious descendants (among whom we enumerate the ancient Hebrews) until the time of Moses and the change of the year, during the four decades preceding the autumnal equinox. See 21st September. The eminence upon which Christ himself solemnized this period of privation, called “the Mountain of Forty Days,” is even now a hallowed spot, and commands the noblest surview in the province ; overlooking the mountains of Arabia, the country of Gilead, the land of the Ammonites, the plains of Moab, and of Jericho (on which it stands), and the flat surface of the Dead Sea. After our Saviour's Resurrection, this institution was, by his disciples, very happily blended (because falling exactly on the day when the ark rested) with a more glorious event—the second, or moral regeneration of mankind.—See 5th April. By the omission of the six intervening Sundays (which were, with good reason, regarded as festivals of rest), there are forty days; an arrangement that was first published by Pope Felix in the year 487; but the custom of sprinkling ashes (clearly a remote allusion to the deluge) on the heads of penitents, was not introduced until about the end of the 6th Century, and established afterwards by the council of Beneventum, in 1091. In this kingdom the comminatory service was substituted in its place, at the Reformation.

According to the tables of Trivalore, the great Hindostan epoch, Callyhougham, began at sunrise this day, B.C. 3102, that is A. M. 902, and before the death of Adam.

While the Earth remaineth, seed-time and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease.- Pentateuch.

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Galileo Galilei, 1564, Pisa. Dec. Albinus (Emperor), killed,
Henry Fred. Prince of Wales, 198. Rhone (river).

1594, Stirling Castle. Erasmus Reinhold, 1553.
Peter Motteux, 1660, Rouen. Bp. (Thomas) Bentham, 1578.
Richard Cumberland, 1732,/ Eccleshall.
Trinity College, Cambridge. L.Vanini, 1619. burnt, Toulouse.

Sir Henry Savile, 1622. Eton.

Dr. Francis Bernard, 1697.
This same skull. sir. was Peter Motteux, murdered, 1717,
Yorick's skull. I knew him.] St. Clement Danes.
Horatio : a fellow of infinite jest. Francis de Sauvages, 1767. d.
of most excellent fancy. Where

be your jibes now? your gam-

Matthew Tait, 1792. d. Auchinbols? your songs? your flashes

leck, aged 123. of merriment, that were wont to

wont to Nicholas Joseph Selis, 1802. set the table in a roar ? not one,

Eliz. Carter, 1806.Grosv. Chapel. to mock your own grinning? What a striking contrast there quite chop-fallen! Now get you is in the two aged Brothers of to my lady's chamber, and tell Terence: the one is all mildher, let her paint an inch thick, ness and good humour; whereas to this favour she must come; the other, on the contrary, is make her laugh at that.

represented as an absolute churl. Hamlet.

As to avarice, nothing can be

more irrational and absurd, than Obits of the Latin Church. for an old man to increase his

provision for the road, the nearer St. Barbatus (or Barbas), Bishop

hophe approaches to his journey's of Benevento, 684.

end.— Cicero.

All the pleasure in the world is not worth an oath.--Prince Henry.

You must bear with me: pray now forget and forgive. -King Lear.


The CHARISTIA, were solemn banquets of love and good will held at Rome on this day between families and relatives. The feast of Chiggim observed by the Jews, the Agapa, or love feasts of the primitive Christians, the Sussitia of the Cretans, and the Philitia of the Spartans were all of a kindred spirit to those household assemblies so laudably cherished by the Romans.—The Feast of Lanterns is kept in China on the fifteenth day of the first moon (this day), when it is said that two hundred millions of those fanciful emblems of light and benevolence are suspended over the portals of humanity. It is for broad-eyed erudition to retrace these footsteps through the sand-banks of time.

Pyrrhus passes into Italy about this day, with twenty elephants, three thousand horse, twenty thousand heavy-armed foot, two hundred archers, and five hundred slings, having very narrowly escaped shipwreck, B. C. 280. It was the merit of this heroic prince to be great only in his con- { ceptions, and perhaps in adversity. He was humane, abounded in gratitude; was affable, and temperate in his enmities ; but Antigonus compares him to a man at dice, who has admirable fortune but plays badly;—for whatever he acquired by his exploits he lost by the vanity of his expectations. Like Pompey, that idol of the historian, he has all of our love, but none of our faith ; a charming figure from Nature's chisel, } resting on a pedestal of clay.-In the same year Demosthenes was honoured at Athens with a statue, on the motion of his nephew Demochares : Ceraunus is slain by the Gauls : Chrysippus, the Stoic, is born at Tarsus,-more famous as the birth-place of St. Paul : and the Achæan League, in which the energies of Aratus were enlisted, is established.

Prince Charles and Buckingham embark at Dover and land at Boulogne, 1623, on their romantic expedition to Madrid.

The sixth month, Ventóse, of the French Republican Calendar began; about the day that the sun enters the sign Pisces.

Silence is an answer to a wise man.- Euripides.

Among the hinderers of religion I comprehend as well those that are too swift, as those that are too slow; those that go before the law, or behind the law, as those that will not follow ---Sir Nicholas Bacon.




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M. F. A. de Voltaire, 1694, Archbishop, (Thomas) Arundel,

1414. Canterbury.
David Garrick, 1716, baptized, Martin V. (Pope), 1431.

Matteo Boiardo, 1494. d. Reggio.
L. Castelvetro, 1571. d. Basil.

Sir Nicholas Bacon, 1579. St.
The English House of Com-

Paul's. mons is properly the nation.

"| Dorothy Sidney, Countess of Peers and bishops are in parlia

Sunderland, 1684. Brington. ment only for themselves, and

; and Elizabeth Rowe, 1737. Frome. the House of Commons for all

Robert, 19th E.of Kildare, 1744. the country.—Voltaire.

| Usher Gahagan, executed, 1749.

John de Mairan, 1771. d. Paris. Obits of the Latin Church.

Charles III. (of Savoy), 1773.

Laura Bassi, 1778.
Sts. Tyrannio, Zenobius, and to

and Joseph II. (Emperor), 1790. others, Martyrs in Phænicia, Dr. John Moore, 1802. d. Richc. 310.

1 mond. St. Sadoth, Bp. of Seleucia and Richard Gough, 1809.Wormley.

Ctesiphon, with 128 compa- Dr. Arthur Young, 1820.

nions, Martyrs, 342.
St. Eleutherius, Bp. of Tournay,||

Martyr, 532.
St. Mildred, V. Abbess in Thanet, For my name and memory I
d. 7th Century.

leave it to men's charitable St. Eucherius, Bp. of Orleans, speeches, and to foreign nations d. 743.

and the next ages.-Lord Bacon's St. Ulrick, of England, d. 1154. Will.

Infirmity, that decays the wise, doth ever make the better fool.-Malvolio.

............. 119 ..................................


It is easy for him who has his foot out of adversity to advise those who are travelling in the mire.- Æschylus.


SOPHOCLES obtains his first tragie victory in the month Elaphebolivn, about the present day, B. C. 468, at those dramatic games established in memory of the recovery, by Cimon, of the ashes of Theseus from the Scyrians. This award of ten impartial censors, selected by the general himself, in favour of a young man then unknown within the theatre of fame, is said to have so disconcerted Æschylus that he retired to the vicinity of Gela, in Sicily, where, twelve years after, he closed his honourable existence. The same year in which the “ Triptolemus” was produced at Athens marks. also the birth of Socrates, and of Andocides (the orator); and the deaths of Simonides and Aristides, as well as the destruction of Mycenæ by the Argives. The “ Cloudsof Aristophanes was exhibited in that month, B. C. 423, which fixes the age of Socrates at forty-five when he was calumniated upon the stage.

Edward VI. is inaugurated with three crowns, emblems of his sovereignty over England, France, and Ireland, 1547. This event took place in the prince's tenth year, and four days after the interment of his father.

The state-espousals of Peter, Czar of Muscovy, and his wife, Catharine Alexievna, called by etiquette his Majesty's Old Wedding, are solemnized at Petersburg, seven o'clock of the morning, 1712.

The Freeholder" of Addison, on the standard of money, 1716 ; “ One cannot but pity the melancholy condition of a miser in France, who is perpetually telling his livres, without being able to know how rich he is. He is as ridiculously puzzled and perplexed as a man that counts the stones on Salisbury Plain, which can never be settled to any certain number, but are more or fewer every time he reckons them.”

Almost all girls of quality are educated as if they were to be great ladies, which is often as little to be expected, as an immoderate heat of the sun in the north of Scotland.-Lady Montagu.

moooorroos 113 .....nanocomanaccones........

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