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brilliant Military achievements the Whig into such Territory from whom labor or service
is lawfully claimed in any one of the United party had ever been strongly opposed. It was farther urged that his opinions on and conveyed out of said Territory to the person
* States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed the great leading principles of National claiming his or hor labor or service." Policy had never been clearly enunciated,
This Proviso was adopted with little nor liis qualifications for the highest civil station conclusively demonstrated; and
discussion (but not without evoking much especially that on the great absorbing |
feeling) by the House, nearly all the
Members from the Free States supportquestion respecting the admission of Hu
ling, while those from the Slave States opmin Slavery into or its exclusion from the
posed it. Territories of the Union just acquired from?
The bill thus amended was
sent to the Senate, and was promptly Mexico, bis opinions were not known to
met by Mr. D. H. Lewis, of Alabama, with accord with those of that great majority
la motion to strike out the Proviso. Mr. o the Whig party which stood firm for
Davis of Mass. rose in opposition to this Freedoin, but were with reason suspected.
motion, and was speaking against it and even confidently claimed to incline
when word was brought that the House the other way. The objections thus raised
Jhad adjourned without day-the hour of were strengthened by the refusal of the
adjournment (noon) having been struck by Convention to pass a resolutionaffirming
& the House clock, though not yet reached the principle of the Wilmot Proviso, or even to put forth any formal declaration of 1
by the Senate's. The bill thus failed for fundamental Whig principles at all. Ons
the session, and among the most vocifer
l'ous mourners over its loss was Gen. Lewis these grounds, many Whigs felt constrain
Cass, a Senator from Michigan, who deeped for months after the nomination to withhold their support. But by letters
ly regretted, in repeated conversations,
that so fair an opportunity to establish the subsequently written by Gen. Taylor the
principle of Freedom in the Territories doubts of his fidelity to Whig princi
i had been lost. ples and the apprehensions that he would
The next Session witnessed a revival veto any bill which Congress might pass
Slof the bill, and of course of the Proviso; embodying the principle of Freedom in
both of which again passed the House, the Territories, were pretty generally dis
but the latter was now defeated in the pelled, and a very general concurrence of the party in his support ultimately se
Senate-Gen. Cass now ranging himself cured.
with its opponents, but in his speech We return to the dissenters at Balti
avowing his concurrence in the principle more from the Cass and Butler nomination.
of the Proviso, while he regarded the at
tempt to establish it as untimely and inIn the progress of the Wright and Cros
auspicious. But soon after the next Conwell controversy in this State, a difference
gress assembled (Dec. 28, 1847,) the same of opinion on a great National question
Gen. Cass addressed an elaborate letter had been gradually developed. When,
to Mr. A. O. P. Nicholson of Tenn., avow. after the victories on the Rio Grande and the simultaneous declaration of War:
ing that a change had taken place in his
views, and that he was now opposed to against Mexico, it became evident that
the Proviso altogether, as at best of doubtan acquisition of Territory would be
|ful constitutionality and at once perilous among the results of that War, the dis
and useless. This letter was widely cirposition and future institutions of that
culated, and was doubtless effectual in seTerritory become objects of general con
curing the defeat of the Proviso when the cern. Just as the XXIXth Congress was
close of the War had removed most of the closing its first or long session, Mr. David
original grounds of opposition to it. It Wilmot, a Representative from Pennsylvania, after a hasty consultation with
doubtless exerted an influence also in
winning Southern support to Gen. Cass, several of his Northern Democratic'
and thus securing his nomination for Pres. friends, moved to add to a bill before the
ident. House, designed to give the President
Long ere this, however, the Proviso or control of Three Millions of Dollars where
Free Soil question had become a potent with to make Peace, a Proviso in the
"element in the feud which divided the words following:
party in New York. The Wright or Radi“* And be it further enacted, That there shall be lol
e cal wing had never cordially approved neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in any Territory on the continent of America which shai the policy of Annexation, though they had hereafter be acqnired by or annexed to the United acquiesced in it under the stringency of States by virtue of this appropriation, or in any a party necessity, giving pledges to their other manner whatsoever, except for crimes whereof the party shall liave been duly convicta
followers that the acquisition of Texas ed: Provided, always, That any peo p le should not be permitted to operate as an
unbalanced aggrandizement of the Slave more than two parties are engaged, to fall Power. Their votes in Congress had away from the weaker into the ranks of been gained for Annexation, upon a the two principal parties. Many thondistinct pledge that Mr. Polk would se- sands who would have preferred the elec- :| lect the mode of effecting it prescribed tion of Van Buren to that of either by Mr. Benton's alternative joint resolu- leading candidates, were constrained ultition-a pledge falsified by the maneuver| mateiy to reason thus- True, I prefer of having Mr. Tyler make the selection Van Buren, but my vote will not elect just as he was bidding adieu to power.- him, while it may decide the contest as Of course the Radicals unanimously and between Taylor and Cass, and I so greatly cordially supported the Proviso, and ad- prefér one of these to the other that I canhered to it throughout, while their adver- not consent to throw it away.' That this saries fell away from it. At the Syracuse argument did not prevail still more univer Convention which rejected Flagg and sally is a striking proof of the strength o' nominated Hungerford, one of the last the Free Soil sentiment throughout the acts was the laying on the table by the Free States. Only by convincing then Huker majority a resolution proposed that the election of Gen. Cass would nit by the Barnburners which affirmed the prove detrimental to the cause of Fre. of the Wilmot Proviso.
dom in the Territories, could the gret When, therefore, a call was issued by mass of the voters be brought to sustain an Ohio State Convention of dissenters one or the other. trom both the Philadelphia and Baltimore
On the 7th of November, Electors of nominations for a more general Conven
President were chosen in every Sute, tion at Buffalo of all devoted adherents to the Proviso to nominate a National ticket,
save that in Massachusetts (where a mathe · Barnburners' naturally responded to
jority of all the votes is requisite to a the call, as did the Liberty party and al
choice,) no election was made by the Peolarge body of whig dissenters from the ple, but it was well known that the Les.
islature would choose the Taylor Electors. support of Gen. Taylor. The Buffalo Con
A decided majority of the Electors su vention assembled on the 8th of August, and was imposing alike in numbers, in ne
chosen having been nominated and upability and in character. Nearly or quite !
ported by the Whig party as in favor of all the Free States, with several of the
ZACHARY TAYLOR and MILLARD JILL
MORE, these candidates are already virtuSlave States, were represented. The de liberations of the Convention were con
ally and will soon be actually chosen re. tinued through three days, were signally
spectively President and Vice-President, harmonious and dignified, and resulted in:
while the Congressional Electionstlus far the nomination of MARTIN VAN BUREN for
1) indicate a very decided preponderance of
Whigs in the next House of Representa President, and CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS
tives. The Senate will be more equally of Massachusetts, son of the late venera ed ex-President,) for Vice-President. A
divided, probably not more than five ma l series of resolutions were adopted pro
Ljority either way, but no indiscrininate claiming the most devoted attachment to a
and factious opposition to the new Presithe principle of Freedom in the Territories,
dent from a majority of this dignified body to the exclusion of Slavery therefrom ; ne
need be apprehended. declaring in favor of free grants of Public On the 5th of March, 1849, (the 4th fall. Lands in limited quantities to Actual Set-ing on Sunday,) Gen. Taylor will doubtless tlers; in favor of the Improvement of be inaugurated' as President and Mr. FillRivers and Harbors by the General Gov-more as Vice-President, and the former ernment; of the rais
adequate will immediately form his Cabinet and Revenue by Duties on Imports, &c. &c.--enter upon the direction of our Nacional These Resolutions constitute the Buffalo concerns. On the 4th of December followPlatform, which was ably and forcibly com- ing, the XXXIst Congress will assemble mended to the People of the Free States to consider and adopt such Legislative thenceforward to the close of the Presiden- measures as the condition of the Country, tial canvass, by a number of the ablest and of its depressed Industry and dilapidated most effective public speakers in the Finances, may render necessary. May country, and which, we hazard nothing in the Divine blessing attend their mutual saving, were commended to the judgment labors: and general thrift, plenty, contentand approval of the People to an extent ment, happiness, crown their. efforts with far beyond what was indicated by the vote that true glory which springs not from carfor Van Buren and Adams Electors. There nage and desolation but which results from is an irresistible tendency in a protracted exalted power wisely and unselfishly de. and engrossing Political contest wherein voted to the lasting good of Mankind!
The year now closing, will in all time sides. The troubles increased from day to to come remain an epoch in the History day, and Lombardy was declared by the of Europe. Within its compass are in- Government at Vienna to be in a state of cluded events of more importance to the insurrection. The army of Radetsky was future than any which have occurred for increased, and on the other hand, the centuries, and the rapidity with which the King of Sardinia, whose sympathies were entire condition and relative positions of known to be in favor of the Italian cause, the European nations have been changed, called out an additional force of 25,000 men is something for which we find no ade- on the 10th of the month, and concentrated quate parallel in the records of any age. his army on the line of the Ticino. Tłe history of the two or three previous In the meantime, similar movements years, it is true, demonstrated the ex- had taken place in Sicily. The people istence of the causes which have led to demanded concessions from the King of these conclusions, but even those who Naples, which were not granted. An atwere most confident of the result, did not tempt was made to force them into subdrean the crisis was so near at hand. mission, but the Swiss troops refused to
The first token of the approach of these fire on the people, and the Duke of Serra changes, was given on the first day of the Capriola declined accepting the Viceyear, though its cause may be traced back royalty, unless he should have power to to tbe Amnesty granted by Pius IX. The make the desired reforms. Signs of reMilanese, who had never borne the Aus-sistance soon began to show themselves ; trian yoke patiently, toward the end of on the 4th a serious outbreak occurred in Decenber, 1847, formed a league by which Messina, which was followed on the 12th they bound themselves to abstain entirely the time secretly appointed for a general from the use of tobacco, after the first of rising—by the descent of the country Januuy. This league would have drawn people upon the garrison at Palermo.an important source of revenue from the The Cavalry which attacked then, was Austrian Government, and in order to repulsed with a loss of fifty, und, aided by break down the growing opposition, Ra- the citizens, they commenced barricading detsky, the Military Governor of Milan, the town. A Provisional Government took measures to bring on à collision be- was appointed on the 15th, and the troops tween the troops and the people.' Cigars soon after opened a bombardment, which were given to the garrison, with directions lasted twenty hours. A temporary susto smake them in the public streets, and pension of hostilities was procured by the on the afternoon of the 3d, bands of intervention of the Foreign Consuls, but soldiers, thus provided, traversed the the strise was finally terminated on the promenades. The people gave vent to 19th by a sanguinary battle, which retheir disapprobation in murmurs and sulted in the taking of the Bank and hisses ; the troops fell upon them, and a Royal Palace by the people, after which massacre commenced, which lasted till the soldiers withdrew and the whole city | midnight. The indignation of the Italians was surrendered to them. Trapani, Caat these barbarities was not confined to tania, Syracuse, and other towns, followed Milan. At Brescia, Pavia, and other the example of Palermo, and the struggle cities of Lombardy, disturbances occur- now commenced in earnest, for the Indered, in which persons were killed on both pendence of Sicily..
The news of this Revolution created a enlightening its followers in regard to th: great sensation throughout Italy, · and character of the desired reforms, the prachastened the fulfillment of promises which tice of public dinners arose, at which they othes Princes had made to the People.-- were freely discussed. These dinners The King of Naples resisted the demands soon grew into “banquets,” which were of his subjects for a long time. Roberti, held in Paris and the Provinces, and atGovernor of Naples, and Statello, Com- tended by large numbers of persons.mander of the Forts, having refused to the health of the King was purposely obey his command to fire upon the popu- omitted at many of these, and addresses lace, he was brought to terms, and on the of a bold and energetic character fre29th a Constitution was proclaimed, based quently delivered, reports of which found! mainly upon the French Charter of 1830. their way into many of the public jourA general rejoicing followed this declara-nals. It was at length decided on the tion. Early in February, the Grand Duke part of the Government to suppress them. of Tuscany, who had previously given and a stormy discussion on this subject token of his liberal designs, granted a took place in the Chamber of Deputies oi Constitution to his dominions, and the the 8th of February. It was again takei Dukes of Parma and Modena proposed to up on the 13th, when 100 Deputies of the do the same.
left, many of whom had already take Lombardy, whose example had partly part in the banquets, resolved to atten contributed to bring about these changes, them. was now in turn sustained by them. Tne Reform Banquet of the 12th ArroiMartial law was proclaimed by the Aus- dissement of Paris, which was appointed trian Governor, and the most stringent to be held on the 20th, on a grand scae, measures taken to suppress the revolu- gave the Government the occasion tley tionary feeling, but without effect. The desired. It was forbidden by the Miniter Municipality of Milan addressed a request of the Interior, and in anticipation of iny to the Government at Vienna, that they resistance, the fortifications of Paris were should grant a separate jurisdiction to the silently inspected and put in order. The Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom, that the Banquet was postponed to the 22d, andin Government be administered by an Aulic the meantime a body of 250 Deputies, with Council, independent of that of Vienna, Odilon Barrot at their head, went toche and that the Austrian employés be with Minister and declared that his course vas drawn, and the stamp and excise laws illegal. They obtained no satisfacion, abolished. This received no immediate however, and after some discussion, itwas attention, and the troubles increased so resolved to abandon the Banquet ant im. rapidly that on the 15th of February the peach the Government. On the 226 the Austrian Government issued a manifesto city was filled with troops, between wlom to the Italians, bidding them remember and the people there were several olli. the fate of Poland, and admonishing them sions, though without bloodshed, and to to obedience. The activity of the Liberal ward night some barricades were erected. party, however, was not in the least dim- A charge of impeachment, signed by 50 inished, and the Government found it im- Deputies, was handed to the President of possible to suppress the manifestations of the Chamber, but not read. sympathy with the movements in other The next morning, several bodies of the quarters. The King of Sardinia proclaim. National. Guards fraternized with the ed a Constitution in his dominions on the people. Barricades were again ereced 8th of February, similar in its features to on the Boulevards, which were attached that of France. The general rejoicing on by the troops of the Line and carried with this occasion was strongly expressed in considerable loss. Fighting also took Milan. The troops of Sardinia continued place at other points, and at 3 o'clockthe. to increase on the Lombard frontier, and it King was constrained to empower Count was now evident that their assistance Molé to form a new Ministry. A tempowould not be denied, when the Revolution rary pause followed, but towarı night should openly break out.
the crowd before the Hotel of the Ministe: At this time, public sentiment was of Foreign Affairs were fired on, and the aroused in Paris, by a question involving Revolution began in earnest. The deal
emblages of the peo-bodies were borne along the Boulevards; ple to discuss measures of political re- the night was spent in arming and builiform. The growing oppression of Louis ing barricades, and several companies of Philippe and his Government had not the Line having fraternized with the Na. been able to prevent the rapid spread of tional Guards, the city was next mornin liberal principles among the people. As in the hands of the people. At 12 o'clock a means of organizing this opposition and the Palais Roval was attacked and taken
with great slaughter; at 1 o'clock the ab-l extremity in case their hopes of a Repeal dication of Louis Philippe in favor of the of the Union should be frustrated. WithCount of Paris, was announced, but without preventing by force the assemblages out effect, and immediately afterward the of the people, the British Government opTuileries was taken and sacked. The posed them in every way, and all the King and Queen escaped at the last mo- military strength which could be spared ment, and after traveling several days in from other points, was ordered to Dubdisguise, reached Havre, and went on lin and the disturbed districts. Ireland board an English steamer, which landed thus wavered for a time in that position, them at New Haven, near Brighton. where a slight preponderance would have
The Duchess of Orleans appeared be-turned the balance either way. fore the Deputies with her sons, accom- Germany was ripe for a change, and the panied by the Princes, but the Regency effect of a newly-created Republic of was refused, and the victorious mob hav- France was instantaneously manifested. ing invaded the Chamber, they were ob- The people rose up everywhere, and again liged to fly. After a scene of indescribable demanded those reforms which had been tumult, the people agreed that Dupont de so long promised and withheld. Their l'Eure, Lamartine, Arago, Ledru-Rollin, call was this time stern and peremptory, Marie and Cremieux should constitute a and their Kings and Princes found it conveProvisional Government, with Marrast, nient to listen. The first concessions were Pagnerre, Ferdinand Flocon and Albert made by the Grand Duke of Baden, who, as Secretaries. The announcement of on the 29th of February, granted his peothese names was received with loud cries ple Freedom of the Press, a National of Vire la République ! and the Assembly Guard, Trial by Jury, and the Right of then proceeded to the Hotel de Ville, Public Assembly. On the same day, the where, after a sitting of two days and Canton of Neufchatel, which had previnights, surrounded by an armed and threat- ously had some misunderstanding with the ening mob, the Republic was finally pro- Swiss Diet, declared itself an Independent claimed by Lamartine. This was followed Republic. The Elector of Hesse Cassel, on the 27th by the opening of the National after a stubborn resistance to the wishes Workshops for those who were without of his people, was besieged in his palace work, and a decree for a National Assem- on the first of March, and obliged to grant bly of 900 Representatives, elected by the desired reforms. On the 2d the King universal suffrage, to meet on the 9th of of Wirtemberg proclaimed Liberty of the April. The Chambers of the Peers and Press, which was also promised to the Deputies were dissolved; the emancipa- people by the King of Prussia and the tion of Slaves in all French Colonies pro-Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar. The Duke claimed; the Liberty of the Press estab- of Nassau followed on the 4th by conceding lished; with many other reforms of nearly the usual reforms, and the King of Bavaria equal importance. The Republic gained on the 6th, after a violent tumult which strength with every day, and those fac- lasted two days. tions which had held aloof from it in the The citizens of the two great German commencement, soon found it advisable to Capitals, emboldened by the changes in pronounce in its favor.
other quarters, now assumed a firmer atThe effect of this startling and unex-ltitude toward their Governments, and pected Revolution was tremendous : its pressed their demands with urgency.--rebound came back from nearly every They received no satisfactory reply, and capital in Europe. The Italians, seeing a an insurrection broke out simultaneously war with Austria inevitably at hand, pre-in Vienna and Berlin, on the 13th of pared to face it with a confident courage ; March. In Vienna, a body of 2,000 the Irish and Scotch celebrated the news Students, with the officers of the Univerwith enthusiastic public demonstrations, sity, marched to the Palace to demand and especially in the former country, the Freedom of the Press. Refusing to retire spirit of opposition to British rule rose to at the command of the Archduke Adalan alarming hight. Meetings of the Old bert, they were fired upon, and several and Young Ireland parties were held al-killed. Having been joined by 20,000 of most nightly, addressed by John Mitchel, the populace, they attacked the soldiers, W. Smith O'Brien, T. F. Meagher and captured some cannon, and barricaded the others, and the United Irishman, the organ city. The fight lasted till night, terminatof the Young Ireland or Physical Force ing in the triumph of the People, and the party, was filled with articles on the sub-granting of all their demands. The Villa ject of defence and military discipline. of Prince Metternich was destroyed, and The popular leaders openly avowed their that Minister was obliged to flee from determination to push matters to the last Austria.