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JAMSHÊD.-A Katár KáFir; NEPHEW OF GENERAL FERAMORZ.

MEASUREMENTS OF HEAD (BY DR. JOHN BEDDOE).

ENGLISH
INCHES.
6.8

MILLIMETRES.

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1. Greatest length of head from glabella

1727 2. Length from tuber occip. to greatest convexity of frontal arch

6-7 170*2 3. Length from tuber occip. to glabella

6.8 1727 4. Greatest length of head from smooth depression above glabella (ophryon)

675 1714 5. Greatest length of head from depression at root of nose 665 1689 6. Length from chin to vertex

9:1 231'1 7. Least breadth between frontal crests

37 94 8. Greatest breadth between zygomata

5^1 1295 9. Breadth from tragus to tragus

5 127 10. Greatest breadth of head

59 149:8 yielding cranial index 86.7 11. Breadth between greatest convexities of mastoid pro

53 12. Greatest circumference of head

20-6

5232 13. Circumference at glabello-inial line

20*4 14. Circumference at inion and frontal convexity

20-5 15. Arc from nasal notch to inion (tuber occip.)

128

325'1 36. Arc from one meatus to the other across top of head... 14'4 3657 17. Arc from one meatus to the other over glabella

115

2921 18. Length of face (nasal notch to chin), giving facial index, 804

cesses

1346

518:1 5206

4'1 104'I Height from meatus to vertex

53 133'5 Bigoniac breadth

4'I 1035 The head, though strongly brachy-cephalic, is distinctly of Aryan type ; high and round, but not at all acro-cephalic; the inion is placed very high.

CENTI METRES,

JAMSHÊD—(continued). THE FOLLOWING MEASUREMENTS ARE ACCORDING TO THE SYSTEM OF

SCHWARZ, OF THE NOVARA EXPEDITION. 28. From the growth of hair to the incisura semilunaris sterni

25 29. From the inion to the Halswirbel (vertebra prominens)

14'45 30. Direct diameter, from one meatus aud. ext. to the other

11.85 31. Outer angle of the eye to the other

8 75 32. Inner angle of the eye to the other

275 33. Distance of the fixed points of the ear

4'05 34. Breadth of the nose

32 35. Breadth of the mouth

5* 36. Distance of the two angles of the lower jaw

10:35 37. From incis. semil. sterni to the seventh vertebra

12'95 38. From the axillary line over the mammæ to the other

26.4 39. From sternum to columna vertebralis, straight across

19-3

JAMSHÊD.-SYSTEM OF Schwarz—(continued).

CENTIMETRES.

22'35 26'05 33:5 37

4195 88-25 19'25 26.85

13:5

434 39'2 14.75

40. From one spina anterior superior ilii to the other
41. From one troch. maj. to other
42. Circumference of the neck
43. From one tuberculum majus to the other ...
44. From middle line of axillary line over the chest, above mammæ,

to the other middle line
45. Circumference of chest on the same level
46. From nipple to nipple
47. Between anterior spines of ilia
48. From trochanter major to the spina anterior ilii of the same

side 49. From the most prominent part of the sternal articulation of

the clavicular to above 50. From same point to the navel 51. From navel to upper edge of the symphysis ossium pubis 52. From the 5th lumbar vertebra along the edge of the pelvis to

the edge of the symphysis 53. From the 7th vertebra to the end of the os coccygis 54. From one acromion to the other across the back 55. From the acromion to the condyl. ext. humeri 56. From ext. condyl. humeri to processus styloideus radii 57. From processus styloideus radii to metacarpal joint 58. From the same joint to the top of the middle finger 59. Circumference of the hand 60. Greatest circumference of upper arm over the biceps 61. Greatest circumference of forearm 62. Smallest circumference of forearm 63. From trochanter major to condyl. ext. femoris 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. From condyl. ext. femoris to mal. ext. 69. Circumference of knee joint 70. Circumference of calf ... 71. Smallest circumference of leg 72. Length of the foot 23. Circumference of instep 74. Circumference of metatarsal joint 75. From external malleolus to ground 76. From condyl. intern. to malleolus int. 77. Greatest circumference of thigh... 78. Smallest circumference of thigh... 79. Round the waist 8. Height of man (English, 5:31) 81. Colour of hair, very dark reddish-brown. 82. Colour of eyes, hazel-grey. 83. Colour of face, yellowish-brown. 84. Colour of skin of body, lighter than above. 85. Weight, 86. Strength, 8;. Pulsation, 80 (a little excited).

43* 60-35 4307 32'25 25 IO'2

98 214 26.8 24'5 15'2 34'35

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38.6

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1619

NOTE ON THE HEADFORM OF THE DARDS AND OF THE

SIAH-POSH KAFIRS.

JOHN BEDDOE, M.D., F.R.S. It is a good many years since, by the courtesy of Dr. Leitner, I was enabled to see, examine, and take measurements of Jamshed, a Siah-Posh (Katár) Kafir whom he had brought to England.

These measurements are now in course of publication by Dr. Leitner, together with a series taken from certain Dards who had been in his service.

The purpose of this note is to draw attention to the very remarkable difference in headform between Jamshed, the Kafir, and these Dards. Six of these, in whom the kephalic index was ascertained, yielded an average of 75'55, the extremes being 72-5 and 78-7. If we subtract, as is customary, two degrees for the excess caused by the presence of the integuments, we shall have an average for the skull of 73'55, very decidedly dolichokephalic, and limits of 70-5 and 767.

Three would be dolichokephals, two mesokephals, and one doubtful.

These proportions, the general type of feature and figure, the long, wellformed nose, the dark eyes and hair, seem to me to bring them into the same class with their neighbours the Kashmiris, and with the inhabitants of the Punjab and of North-western India generally.

But Jamshed was of an entirely different type. He was a short man : by the way, the Dards varied extremely in this respect-a short, small man, rather sturdily made, with a short head, broad and flat posteriorly, such as is found abundantly in the Keltic and Slavonic regions of Central Europe, and of the Sarmatic, rather than the Turanian, type of Von Hölder. The kephalic index was very high, not less than 86'7, or eight degrees beyond that of the broadest-headed Dard ; the facial index 80, the zygomata not being largely developed. His eyes were hazel-gray, his hair very dark, but with a reddish-brown tinge.

On the whole, though I have nothing to say against Dr. Leitner's conjecture, that Jamshed was of the Illyro-Macedonian type, such type being possibly still represented in the valleys of the Hindu Kush, where it may have been planted in consequence of Alexander's colonization and the establishment of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom ; though, I say, I do not oppose this conjecture, I am disposed simply to refer the man to the Galcha race. This short-headed race, which I may perhaps be allowed to call Iranian or Irano-Aryan, is known to occupy the upper valleys of the Zerafshan and neighbouring rivers, and is supposed, though I confess I can give no real authority for the supposition, to extend across the Oxus and occupy Badakshan. Let this be granted, for the sake of argument, and let us take note of the statement of the late Dr. Bellew, that some of the SiahPosh Kafirs are very dark and others very fair, which may indicate either varieties of origin or segregation in practically endogamous communities, where accidental differences of type may have been perpetuated. If the former cause be admitted, what more likely than that some of the Kafir tribes, instead of being akin to the long-headed Indo-Aryans, are really intruders from Badakshan, and that Jamshed may have derived his origin and type from such a tribe?

THE PELASGI AND THEIR MODERN

DESCENDANTS.

(BY THE LATE SIR P. COLQUHOUN AND HIS EXC. THE LATE

P. WASSA PASHA.

(Continued from Vol. VI., page 194.)

COINCIDENCE OF MANNERS BETWEEN THE HOMERIC

HEROES AND THE MODERN ALBANIANS.

This is patent from the employments mentioned. The herdsmen in the Odyssey related their noble origin ; and, on the other hand, the noble persons themselves exercise handicrafts. Odysseus builds himself a raft, as he had built his own bedchamber ;-Achilles cooks the dinner of his guests ;—and Laertes works in his orchard :-nor is it much different at the present day in the same locality. The whole story of both Iliad and Odyssey hinges on women. Odysseus slays the suitors of his wife, because they had put on him an insult which among that people was the gravest; and he hangs the female slaves who had illicit intercourse with the suitors. Achilles sulks because Agamemnon took away his slave girl ; and the rape of Helen was at least alleged as the excuse for the piratical raid. Then follow, outside Homer, the murder by Clytemnestra and the mania of Orestes, and the story of Achilles and Penthesileia. All this coincides with the customs obtaining at the present day in the same localities.

It appears as little needful to suppose that the Homeric poems were originally composed in Greek, as to believe that the Aeneid was written in Pelasgic, which was doubtless the speech of the Trojans. In imitating, paraphrasing and adapting the Homeric poems, Virgil used his own language, and took the subject of a great war, than which none has left so deep an impress on history, real and

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