« 이전계속 »
found its way to this place (Calcutta); and after chiefly affecting the native inhabitants so as to occasion great mortality during a fortnight, it is now generally abated, and is pursuing its course to the northward.'”
Noticed by Curtis in 1782. From this period up to the year 1787 [and perhaps even to 1790] the cholera would appear to have existed epidemically in various parts of India. Curtis states that the fleet in which he served, joined Sir Edward Hughes' squadron at Madras, in the beginning of 1782. In May of that
year, his ship, the Sea-horse, arrived at Trincomallee, and he says : The Mort de chien, or cramp, I was also informed by the attending Surgeon, had been very frequent and fatal among the seamen, both at the hospital and in some of the ships, particularly in the Hero and Superb. . . About the middle of July 1782, I entered on duty at Madras Hospital. Here again I had occasion to see many more cases of the Mort de chien. It was frequent in the fleet in the month of August and the beginning of September, the season at which the land wind prevails on this part of the coast. We had some cases in the hospital in the end of October, and in November after the monsoon, but few in comparison. ...'
" It is also noticed in the Bengal Report, that in the month of April 1783, cholera destroyed above 20,000 people assembled for a festival at Hurdwar ; but it is said not to have extended to the neighbouring country. All these authorities would seem accordingly to establish the fact of the prevalence of cholera in India ; and specially of its existence during the period extending from 1769-70 to 1787, when we find the first notice of the disease in the records of this office, and which we now come to consider.
Dr. Duffin's account of it at Vellore in 1787. “ Doctor Duffin, in a letter dated the 28th October 1787, says : ‘I returned yesterday from Arcot, where I had an
opportunity of seeing the situation of the sick. The Cholera Morbus rages with great violence, with every symptom of putrescency; and so rapid is its progress, that many of the men are carried off in 12 hours' illness.'”
Cholera noticed in 1790 in the Northern Sircars. It is stated in the Calcutta report, that Cholera was again very prevalent and destructive in a Detachment of Bengal troops marching through the Northern Circars, in the months of March, April, May and June of 1790.
A cursory inspection of the register of burials which has been kept at St. Mary's Church in Fort St. George from so remote a period as the year 1680, affords some grounds for believing that the population of Madras, including the military and sea-faring classes, have at certain periods suffered much from epidemics; no light, however, is thrown on the nature of the sickness which may have prevailed. Thus, in 1685, the number of funerals was 31, which is about the average of the four previous years; in 1686 there were 57 funerals; in 1687.–93 ; in 1688,-84; in 1689,-75; after which they gradually diminished to about the first standard. The funerals amounted again to more than the usual number in 1711, being 92 ; in 1712,-89; and 1714,—80. In 1755 there appeared to have been much sickness, 101 funerals having then taken place. The deaths increased yearly till 1760, when there were 140. After this they decreased, and continued stationary till 1769, when 148 took place, a great many of which were of seamen, soldiers, and recruits. A most remarkable increase in the mortality is observable at a period when we know that cholera prevailed on the coast. Thus from the year 1770 to 1777, the average number of funerals was about 105 in the year, the population, it is to be supposed, having by this time increased. From that period till 1785, the funerals were : In 1778,—165; in 1779,—190; in 1780,—353; in 1781,–516; in 1782,4657; in 1783,--440; in 1784,—250; in 1785,—99.
The occasional presence of Aeets and armies no doubt contributed to swell the lists of funerals at particular periods; but on the occasions in question the mortality extended also to the civil population ; and as the instance of the greatest mortality which is recorded took place at a time when we know from other sources that cholera prevailed on the coast, there seems ground for inferring that the same cause probably existed on the other occasions which have been noticed. Though not immediately connected with the subject, we may here be permitted to remark, that an examination of the obituary affords signal proof of an amelioration in the health of sea-faring people, the mortality amongst them, in remote periods, appearing to have been excessive, in comparison with that of modern times.
Returns of sick to the Hospital Board from Arcot and Vellore from 1789 to 1814 : (cholera is known to have prevailed during the three first years) :
1787-- 130 1792- - o 1797-
o 1802- - 8 | 1807-- 79 1812- - 40 1788-· 54 179313 1798- - I 1803- - 45 1808.
60 1813- - 45 1789-- 34 1794-. 3 1799-- o 1804 -- 53 1809-- 57 1814- - 65 1790- - 9 1795-
1800-- 2 1805- - 16 1810- - 133 1791-- 7. 1796- - 61801 - - 25 1806- - 55 1811-- 67
In an interesting paper on the history of cholera, in the Indian Annals of Medical Science, Dr. D. B. Smith quotes Dr. John Macpherson and other authorities, to prove that malignant cholera showed itself in one of the first campaigns of Europeans in India, in the year 1503. The Portuguese found it in India. The first undoubted great epidemic of cholera within the period of European intercourse with India, took place at Goa, in 1543. From the accounts of Zacutus, Bontius and others, the disease appears, about 1632, to have been widely diffused in Java, India, Arabia and Morocco. There was a period of quiescence of the disease in the early part of the 18th century-then a great outburst after 1756, which lasted about thirty years, and was followed by a period of comparative rest till 1817. Since that time it had been active. Dr. Smith has done a service in reprinting the correspondence between Mr. C. Chapman, Judge of Jessore, and Mr. W. B. Bayley, Secretary to Government during the great outburst of 1817 in that District and Burdwan.
A shrine was opened, in 1817, at Kidderpore, to a newly created goddess, who was known as the celebrated Oola Bibi (the “ Lady of the Flux !"), rival of the great Káli Dévi, whose famous temple is at Kali Ghaut, on the banks of Tolly's Nullah, which was formerly the channel of the Hooghly. The term cholera (according to Corbyn) was derived, by Trallian, from cholas an intestine, and rheo to flow-literally “bowel-flux.” The old native (Mahratta) name for the disease was Mordshi. Dr. Macpherson has traced the history of the term in a very interesting manner. Mordschi first became Mordeshi, then the Mordeshin of the Portuguese, which in turn was corrupted into the Mort de Chien of the French.
[This last passage is a printed extract in Sir Walter Elliot's note-book, but I do not know its source.—R. S.]
(To be continued.)
INDIAN TUSSUR SILK AND OUR SERICUL
By Miss L. N. BADENOCH.
The true establishment of our manufacture of silk we owe to the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Deprived by it of freedom of worship, a million people were driven to their death, or to foreign shores, chiefly to England. These refugees, including among them no fewer than fifty thousand of their country's ablest workmen, settled in several of our northern manufacturing towns, and at Spitalfields, and planted upon a firm footing the industry, which is justly considered the most artistic in the world. Alas ! this happy tide, so beneficial to our interest, for over a hundred and fifty years, once again has retreated whence it came, carrying with it not the workmen, but their trade; while France owns a development, with which none probably is to be compared.
The reason of our disaster may be summed up in one word, neglect. We have neglected the progressive and scientific spirit of the times, and to fall behind in this age of competition, is -extinction. While France has her Lyons Chamber of Commerce, with a Laboratory for the scientific study of silk, her Syndicat de l'Union des Marchands de Soie, and similar institutions, as well as her important silk Journals, England, for long, had not even a silk journal, and has trusted far too much to individual enterprise.
Her technical education until lately has been nil, while the artistic exigencies of the subject, have been left entirely out of reckoning. No doubt, a more immediate cause of the decline of the English industry is to be found in the French Treaty of 1860, giving France the opportunity of sending her goods to our markets duty free, which rapidly ousted the home manufactures, because they are cheaper and more suited to modern taste. But, in reality, this cause is involved in the larger one of our want of knowledge and exertion. Had we been armed with these, our goods would have stood their ground better in emergency. Delay in removing the tax would have simply kept us the longer ignorant of our own ignorance, as compared with the work of foreign rivals.
That competition in the matter of cheapness must entail a keen struggle to us, it is only fair to admit, since the cost of the living of our poor, and the wage that they demand are great, and the hours of labour are short, in relation to the more cheaply - producing Continental centres.
With frequent strikes, with the high duties imposed abroad on our exports, and with the freaks of fashion, we have likewise been heavily handicapped. But these evils are not insuperable, as it has been amply proved in other directions ; besides, they show a tendency to lessen. And such evils do not touch our national pride in the same way as the discovery of our inability to cope with the ingenuity of others, and our defeat in the match with our more skilful and better-informed Continental confrères,-even