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inevitable intricacy of things; talk with expect from the patient's son, now doubt, and decide with hesitation : but longer an heir, and his wife, now doubting is entirely unknown in medicine; longer a widow ! the advertising professors here delight in Think not, my friend, that there is cases of difficulty. Be the disorder never thing chimerical in such an attempt ; so desperate or radical, you will find already perform cures equally stra numbers in every street, who, by levelling | What can be more truly astonist a pill at the part affected, promise a cer- than to see old age restored to yo tain cure, without loss of time, know- and vigour to the most feeble cons ledge of a bedfellow, or hindrance of tions? Yet this is performed here e business.

day : a simple electuary effects t1 When I consider the assiduity of this wonders, even without the bungling c profession, their benevolence amazes me. monies of having the patient boiled They not only in general give their medi- in a kettle, or ground down in a mill. cines for half value, but use the most per- Few physicians here go through suasive remonstrances to induce the sick ordinary courses of education, but red to come and be cured. Sure, there must be all their knowledge of medicine by something strangely obstinate in an English mediate inspiration from Heaven. So patient who refuses so much health upon are thus inspired even in the womb; such easy terms. Does he take a pride what is very remarkable, understand t in being bloated with a dropsy? does he profession as well at three years old find pleasure in the alternations of an at threescore. Others have spent a sa intermittent fever? or feel as much satis- part of their lives unconscious of faction in nursing up his gout, as he found | latent excellence, till a bankruptcy, pleasure in acquiring it? He must, other- residence in gaol, have called their mira wise he would not reject such repeated lous powers into exertion. And ot! assurances of instant relief. What can be still there are indebted to their superlat more convincing than the manner in ignorance alone for success; the m which the sick are invited to be well? ignorant the practitioner, the less capa The doctor first begs the most earnest is he thought of deceiving. attention of the public to what he is here judge as they do in the East, wb going to propose : he solemnly affirms it is thought absolutely requisite that the pill was never found to want success; man should be an idiot, before he prete he produces a list of those who have been to be either a conjurer or a doctor. rescued from the grave by taking it: yet, When a physician by inspiration is se notwithstanding all this, there are many for, he never perplexes the patient here who now and then think proper to previous examination ; he asks very fe be sick. Only sick, did I say? there are questions, and those only for form sak some who even think proper to die ! He knows every disorder by intuitio Yes, by the head of Confucius! they he adminsters the pill or drop for eve die; though they might have purchased distemper ; nor is more inquisitive thu the health-restoring specific for half-a- the farrier while he drenches an horse. crown at every corner.

the patient lives, then has he one ma I am amazed, my dear Fum Hoam, to add to the surviving list; if he die that these doctors, who know what an then it may be justly said of the patient obstinate set of people they have to deal disorder, that, as it was not cured, with, have never thought of attempting disorder was incurable. to revive the dead. When the living are found to reject their prescriptions, they ought in conscience to apply to the dead,

LETTER XXV. from whom they can expect no such mor

To the same. tifying repulses: they would find in the I was some days ago in company with dead the most complying patients imagin- politician, who very pathetically able ; and what gratitude might they not claimed upon the miserable situation

The per

country : he assured me, that the war, became more eminent by this means ole political machine was moving in in his respective profession. The inha"Tong track, and that scarce even bitants were, therefore, now distinguished lites like his own could ever set it | into artisans and soldiers; and while at again. What have we," said he, those improved the luxuries of life, these

do with the wars on the Continent ? watched for the security of the people. Ľue a commercial nation; we have A country possessed of freedom has ly o cultivate commerce, like our always two sorts of enemies to fear. stars the Dutch ; it is our business foreign foes, who attack its existence 15. Jease trade by settling new colonies; from without, and internal miscreants, se are the strength of a nation ; and who betray its liberties within. The r the rest, our ships, our ships alone, inhabitants of Lao were to guard against I porect us." I found it vain to both. A country of artisans were most on my leeble arguments to those of likely to preserve internal liberty ; and a Lasbo thought himself wise enough nation of soldiers were fittest to repel a wat even the ministry. I fancied, foreign invasion. Hence naturally arose Nie, that I saw with more certainty, a division of opinion between the artisans case I reasoned without prejudice: I and soldiers of the kingdom. The ieture begged leave, instead of argu- | artisans, ever complaining that freedom

to relate a short history. He gave was threatened by an armed internal mle at once of condescension and force, were for disbanding the soldiers,

; and I proceeded as follows to and insisted that their walls, their walls

“THE RISE AND DECLENSION alone, were sufficient to repel the most THE KINGDOM OF LAO."

formidable invasion : the warriors, on Ishward of China, and in one of the contrary, represented the power of trablings of the Great Wall, the the neighbouring kings, the combinations

a province of Lao enjoyed its formed against their state, and the weaky, and a peculiar government of its ness of the wall, which every earthquake

As the inhabitants were on all might overturn. While this altercation ide surrounded by the wall, they feared continued, the kingdom might be justly o adden invasion from the Tartars; and said to enjoy its greatest share of vigour: og cach possessed of property, they every order in the state, by being watchful i szalous in its defence.

over each other, contributed to diffuse natural consequence of security happiness equally, and balanced the state. a afluence in any country is a love of The arts of peace flourished, nor were e re; when the wants of nature are those of war neglected: the neigh25:ed, we seek after the conveniences; bouring powers, who had nothing to * possessed of these, we desire the apprehend from the ambition of men tries of life ; and when every luxury whom they only saw solicitous, not for prided, it is then ambition takes up riches, but freedom, were contented to 122, and leaves hím still something traffic with them : they sent their goods

Tish for. The inhabitants of the to be manufactured in Lao, and paid a atry, from primitive simplicity, soon large price for them upon their return. qea to aim at elegance, and from By these means, this people at length gance proceeded to refinement. It became moderately rich, and their opu

now found absolutely requisite, for lence naturally invited the invader: a

zood of the state, that the people Tartar prince led an immense army ald be divided. Formerly, the same against them, and they as bravely stood and that was employed in tilling the up in their own defence ; they were still and, or in dressing up the manufac- inspired with a love of their country; **s, was also, in time of need, a soldier; they fought the barbarous enemy with the custom was now changed; for it fortitude, and gained a complete victory. Es perceived, that a man bred

up

from From this moment, which they relihood to the arts of either peace or garded as the completion of their glory,

historians date their downfall. They had which it was in the beginning oblig risen in strength by a love of their country, others, it learns to dress up itself. and fell by indulging ambition. The was the case with the colonies of country possessed by the invading Tartars they, in less than a century, becar seemed to them a prize that would not powerful and a polite people, and only render them more formidable for more polite they grew, the less adi the future, but which would increase tageous was the commerce which their opulence for the present; it was subsisted between them and others. unanimousiy resolved, therefore, both by this means the mother country, bi soldiers and artisans, that those desolate | abridged in its commerce, grew poo regions should be peopled by colonies but not less luxurious. Their for from Lao. When a trading nation wealth had introduced luxury ; begins to act the conqueror, it is then wherever luxury once fixes, no art perfectly undone.

It subsists in some either lessen or remove it. Their o measure by the support of its neighbours: merce with their neighbours was tot while they continue to regard it without destroyed, and that with their colo envy or apprehension, trade may flourish; was every day naturally and necess but when once it presumes to assert as its declining ; they still, however, preser right what is only enjoyed as a favour, the insolence of wealth, without a po each country reclaims that part of com- to support it, and persevered in be merce which it has power to take back, luxurious, while contemptible from and turns it into some other channel verty. In short, the state resembled more honourable, though perhaps less of those bodies bloated with dise convenient.

whose bulk is only a symptom of Every neighbour now began to regard wretchedness. with jealous eyes this ambitious common- Their former opulence only rende wealth, and forbade their subjects any them more impotent, as those individi future intercourse with them. The in- who are reduced from riches to pove habitants of Lao, however, still pursued are of all men the most unfortunate the same ambitious maxims : it was from helpless. They had imagined, beca their colonies alone they expected riches; their colonies tended to make them i and riches, said they, are strength, and upon the first acquisition, they wo strength is security. Numberless were still continue to do so ; they now fou the migrations of the desperate and however, that on themselves alone i enterprising of this country to people should have depended for support ; ? the desolate dominions lately possessed colonies ever afforded but temporary a by the Tartar. Between these colonies ence ; and when cultivated and p: and the mother country a very advan- are no longer useful. From such a o tageous traffic was at first carried on : currence of circumstances they soon the republic sent their colonies large came contemptible. The Emperor H. quantities of the manufactures of the invaded them with a powerful ai country, and they in return provided the Historians do not say whetherr republic with an equivalent in ivory and colonies were too remote tolend assistan ginseng. By this means the inhabitants or else were desirous of shaking off 12 became immensely rich, and this pro- dependence; but certain it is ! duced an equal degree of voluptuousness; scarce made any resistance : their w for men who have much money will were now found but a weak delence,

always find some fantastical modes of en- they at length were obliged to ackjoyment. How shall I mark the steps ledge subjection to the empire of Chi by which they declined ? Every colony Happy, very happy might they in process of time spreads over the been, had they known when tot whole country where it first was planted their riches and their glory; had As it grows more populous, it becomes known that extending empire is a more polite; and those manufactures for diminishing power; that countries are:

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test which are internally powerful : on; they want no more, I desire no more

colonies, by draining away the brave myself; yet still they seem discontented. enterprising, leave the country in the I am surprised at the inactivity of our ris of the timid and avaricious; that magistrates, in not taking up such vag

I sgive little protection, unless manned rants, who are only a weig'it upon the h resolution, that too much commerce industrious; I am surprised that the people Erre a nation as well as too little ; are found to relieve them, when they

that there is a wide difference between must be at the same time sensible that it * pering and a flourishing empire.

in some

measure encourages idleness, extravagance, and imposture. Were I to

advise any man for whom I had the least LETTER XXVI.

regard, I would caution him by all means

not to be imposed upon by their false preTo the same.

tences : let me assure you, sir, they are fond of many acquaintances, I impostors, every one of them, and rather - ste an intimacy only with a few. The merit a prison than relief." 1 an in Black, whom I have often men- He was proceeding in this strain, ear

see is one whose friendship I could nestly to dissuade me from an imprudence *3 18 209uire, because he possesses my of which I am seldom guilty, when an old sten. His manners, it is true, are tinc. man, who still had about him the rem

ed with some strange inconsistencies ; nants of tattered finery, implored our si te may be justly termed a humorist, compassion. He assured us that he was 11 n'ion of humorists. Though he is no common beggar, but forced into the Tu even to profusion, he affects to shamesul profession

sion to support a dying noaghi a prodigy of parsimony and wife and five hungry children. Being .ence; though his conversation be prepossessed against such falsehoods, his roue with the most sordid and selfish story had not the least influence upon me; ins, his heart is dilated with the most but it was quite otherwise with the Man

oded love. I have known him in Black: I could see it visibly operate es himself a man-hater, while his upon his countenance, and effectually

kwas glowing with compassion; and, interrupt his harangue. I could easily be his looks were softened into pity, I perceive, that his heart burned to relieve be heard him use the language of the the five starving children, but he seemed 1.5 unbounded ill-nature. Some affect ashamed to discover his weakness to me. & anity and tenderness, others boast of While he thus hesitated between com1:33 such dispositions from nature ; passion and pride, I pretended to look ** ne is the only man I ever knew who another way, and he seized this opportubed ashamed of his natural benevo- nity of giving the poor petitioner a piece

He takes as much pains to hide of silver, bidding him at the same time, feelings, as any hypocrite would to in order that I should hear, go work ceal his indifference; but on every for his bread, and not tease passengers Suarded moment the mask drops off, with such impertinent falsehoods for the - reveals him to the most superficial future.

As he had fancied himself quite unperla one of our late excursions into the ceived, he continued, as we proceeded, to #atry, happening to discourse upon the rail against beggars with as much animo

vision that was made for the poor in sity as before: he threw in some episodes England, he seemed amazed how any of on his own amazing prudence and eco***countrymen could be so foolishly weak nomy, with his profound skill in discover

to relieve occasional objects of charity, ing impostors; he explained the manner when the laws had made such ample pro- in which he would deal with beggars were zion for their support. “In every parish he a magistrate, hinted at enlarging some E.maise,” says he, the poor are supplied of the prisons for their reception, and told

with food, clothes, fire, and a bed to lie two stories of ladies that were robbed by

Server.

beggar.men. He was beginning a third gality and matches might have conti to the same purpose, when a sailor with a had not his attention been called o wooden leg once more crossed our walks, another object more distressful than desiring our pity, and blessing our limbs. of the former. A woman in rags, I was for going on without taking any one child in her arms, and another o notice, but my friend, looking wistfully back, was attempting to sing ballads upon the poor petitioner, bid me stop, and with such a mournful voice, that it he would show me with how much ease difficult to determine whether she he could at any time detect an impostor. singing or crying. A wretch, wh

He now, therefore, assumed a look of the deepest distress still aimed at & importance, and in an angry tone began humour, was an object my friend wa to examine the sailor, demanding in what no means capable of withstanding: engagement he was thus disabled and vivacity and his discourse were insta rendered unfit for service. The sailor re- interrupted; upon this occasion, his plied, in a tone as angrily as he, that he dissimulation ħad forsaken him. had been an officer on board a private in my presence he immediately ap ship of war, and that he had lost his leg his hands to his pockets, in order to re abroad, in defence of those who did her; but guess his confusion when nothing at home. At this reply, all my found he had already given away all friend's importance vanished in a moment; money he carried about him to former he had not a single question more to ask; jccts. The misery painted in the wom he now only studied what method he visage was not half so strongly expres should take to relieve him unobserved. as the agony in his. He continue He had, however, no easy part to act, as search for some time, but to no purp he was obliged to preserve the appearance till, at length recollecting himself, wil of ill-nature before me, and yet relieve face of ineffable good-nature, as he himself by relieving the sailor. Casting, no money, he put into her hands therefore, a furious look upon some shilling's worth of matches. bundles of chips which the fellow carried in a string at his back, my friend demanded

LETTER XXVII. how he sold his matches; but, not waiting for a reply, desired, in a surly tone,

To the same. to have a shilling's worth. The sailor As there appeared something reluctar seemed at first surprised at his demand, good in the character of my compani but soon recollecting himself, and pre- I must own it surprised me what coulu senting his whole bundle, “Here, master,” his motives for thus concealing virtu says he,“ take all my cargo, and a blessing which others take such pains to displ: into the bargain.”

I was unable to repress my desire It is impossible to describe with what knowing the history of a man who th an air of triumph my friend marched off seemed to act under continual restra! with his new purchase : he assured me, and whose benevolence was rather L that he was firmly of opinion that those effect of appetite than reason. fellows must have stolen their goods, who It was not, however, till after repeate could thus afford to sell them for hall solicitations he thought proper to gratis value. He informed me of several dif- my curiosity. "If you are fond," sa ferent uses to which those chips might be he, "of hearing hairbreadth 'scapes, ri applied; he expatiated largely upon the history must certainly please; for I har savings that would result from lighting been for twenty years upon the very very candles with a match, instead of thrusting of starving, without ever being starved. them into the fire. He averred, that he My father, the younger son of a gom would as soon have parted with a tooth family, was possessed of a small living as his money to those vagabonds, unless the church. His education was almova for some valuable consideration. I can- his fortune, and his generosity greate not tell how long this panegyric upon fru• than his education. Poor as he was,

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