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NOTES AND QUERIES:
Medium of Intercommunication
LITERARY MEN, GENERAL READERS, ETC.
“When found, make a aqte of." —CAPTAIN CUTTLE.
FIFTH SERIES. – VOLUME ELEVENTH.
PUBLISHED AT THE
OFFICE, 20, WELLINGTON STREET, STRAND, W.C.
BY JOHN FRANCIS.
LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 4, 1879.
Persian Empire. Wherein are related many straunge
conditions of those Countries and People he passed by :
with his returne into Christendome. Written by William
Travels, 1801, 1-Twelfth Day-Manus Christi, &c., 3-Lady Trauells.
London Printed by Valentine Simmes for
The company started from Venice in May, 1599,
QUERIES:-Major André - Bacon on “Hudibras "--The departing from it :-
Society of Jesus in India -Decoys, 7-Dr. S. Musgrave-
Candia among those merry Greekes, we eftsoones im-
nine dayes passing: where (as the saying is) the Italians
(with whom we passed to Zant) did our errand (like
REPLIES :-Elizabeth Blunt, 9-Ancient Monuments of the pirats, and that they should do wel to lay hands on vs,
and to carry vs to the great Turk, their emperor, because,
besides that, we were pirats, and came into Turky but as
NOTES ON BOOKS:-Pascoe's "Dramatic List" - Home's
From Cyprus Sir Anthony and his company
WILLIAM PARRY'S NARRATIVE OF SIR
position of the people and country, whose behaviours in
point of ciuilitie (besides that they are damned Infidells
and zodomiticall Mahomets) doe answer the hate we
beyond all measure, a most insolent, superbous and in-
"11 Nouembris (1601).
braine, like our Metheglin. They will not permitte any
The tract was included by Mr. Collier in his comming. And if within this sixe yeeres (as they say) he
haue) the Christians at the end therof shal subdue them
Muttons haue huge broade fatte tailes. This meate
most commonly they haue but once in the day, all the
The next stage further inland involved the (Arbela) “ are fountains of petroleum which have travellers in some trouble :
been running ever since Alexander the Great's “ From Aleppo we set forwards in the middest of time.” That it is to this excellent and useful August, accompanied with our English merchants three illuminant Parry refers in the following extract is dayes, to wit, vntill we came to a town called Beerah | beyond doubt :or Birrah, by which runnes the most famous riuer “ Neere ynto a towne call Backo, in Persia, there Euphrates, parting Mesopotamia and Syria; where we issueth out of the earth, in the manner of a water-spring, rested sixe or seauen dayes. wbilest boates were pre- a certaine kind of oyle in great abundance, which they paring for vs and other Turkish merchants ; that being (from all parts of the Persian dominions) do fetch vpon done, we parted from our merchants, and betooke our Camels, Kine and Asses, to burne in lamps, which are selues to the saide riuer of Euphrates, on the which we the lights they vse in their houses.”—P. 37. were some three and twenty dayes passing downe the game. In which time we came by a castle called Racca,
The reception which Sir Anthony Sherley and his where we were to take in fresh meate, and men to row. companions received from the Persian monarch and But loe ! there happened that a Turke, being in one of his subjects was of the most flattering description. the boets in our company, discharged his peece towards In returning home, which they did by the way of the shoare at randon, where he most ynhappily slew the Caspian Sea, our countrymen passed through a Turke of the towne (the bullet entring his braine); by Russia,' and without further extending these reason whereof our boate, aswell as the rest was stayed, extracts I shall conclude with the following :and we constrained to make satisfaction for the mans death: which cost sir Anthony for his company some “ But the day before wee left Muscouia, it was my hundred crownes. Which being payed, and wee dis- fortune to see the King and his Queene in cerimonious charged, we held on our course from thence some two or and triumphant manner passing out of the Citty three dayes passage ; where we were eftsoones stayed by [Moscow), with a great Image and a huge Bell to offer the King of the Arabs, there liuing vpon the rivers side to a certayne Friery, some thirty miles off, which was in tents : before whome we were brought, whose handes performed in this sorte. First, all the morning diuers we kist; and demaunding what we were, and what troupes of horse passed out of the Citty, to stand ready businesse we had in those partes, we replied we were to receiue him at his comming out of the gate. About Englishmen and Merchants by our trades, comming for midday, the King setting forwards, his guard formost, traffike into those partes of the world. Wherevpon this all on horsebacke to the number of fiue hundred, all clad good king tolde vs that he must needes see our mer- in stammel coats, riding in ranke, three and three, with chandize, which we (God wot) durst not contradict; and bows and arrowes, and swords girt to them, as also so he borrowed (without a priuy seale, or bill of his hand) hatchets under the one thigh. After the guarde were some thirtie yardes of cloth of siluer votill our returne. ledde by twenty men twenty goodly horses, with very That being done, we had licence to departe to our boate. rich and curious saddles, and ten more for bis sonne and In whose campe we sawe nothing but a multitude of heire apparant, beeing a childe of twelue yeeres of age. cammelles, mules, asses, horses, sheepe and goats: from After which was ledde, in like sorte, twenty beutifull thence wee passed to another called Anna." ---Pp. 19-20. white horses for the Queenes chariots, hauing onely
Hitherto we follow our travellers down the vppon them a fine sheete, and on theyr heades a crimson Euphrates to its junction with the Tigris and in theyr rich coapes, singing, carrying many pictures
veluet bridle. After them came a great number of Friers towards the Persian Gulf; but all at once we are and lights. After them followed the greatest parte of sent back to the town of Deir, or, as Parry calls the merchants of the Citty. Next them was ledde the it, the town of Dire. He tells us that leaving Anna Kings horse for that day, together with his sonnes : the (or Anah) they came next to the town of Dire. Kings saddle and furniture most richly besette with A reference, however, to any modern reliable map Patriarch, wyth all the Archbishoppes, Bishoppes, and
stones of great price and beauty. Then followed the will show that the last-named town is much great Prelates, singing in their coapes, very rich and further up the river-that is, nearer Aleppo. The glorious, having huge Images borne before them, beeing inference I gather from this is that Parry, after very richly inlayed with pretious Jems of diuerse colours, his return to England, wrote his narrative from and lights about them. Then followed the King him.
selfe, who had in his left hand his sonne, aboue menmemory, which would account for the confusion of tioned, and in his right hand his cappe. Next him came places. This, however, is of little consequence, as the Queene, supported on eyther side by two olde Ladies, the fact now to be quoted is of some interest from her face euen thickly plaistered with painting, as were a scientific point of view :
other Ladies (according to the custome of the Countrey); “ From thence to a towne called Dire, by which there head, attended with some three score very fayre women
hir body very grosse, hir eyes hollowe and far into hir is a lake or poole of very pitch, which in their language (if painting (which they holde a matter religious) they call the mouth of Hell. It swelles in the middest deceiued not the iudgement of mine eie). All whose thereof to the bignesse of an hogshead, and so breaketh apparel was very rich, beset with pearle curiously with a great puffe, falling flat, and thus continually it wrought, hauing white hattes on theyr heads, with great worketh : whereof there is no bottome to be found, albeit round bands laden with pearle. We neuer saw hattes it often hath beene tried by all meanes.”—P. 20.
worne by any women in the Country, but by them This “lake or poole of very pitch” could be no onely.”—Pp. 50-52. other than one of the many bitumen springs which Sir Anthony Sherley's own narrative of this have been known to exist for ages in Asia Minor expedition was not published until 1613, for a review of which Mr. Collier's Bibliographical of the officiating clergymen a red bag, which is Account, 1865 (vol. ii. p. 343), may be consulted. placed in an offertory basin. This is understood
S. to contain the Queen's offering of gold, frankin
cense, and myrrh, in commemoration of the gift of TWELFTH DAY.
the Magi to the infant Saviour. This day is rich As a popular festival Twelfth Day stands only in proverbs. Thus, in Dalmatia they say, “ If you inferior to Christmas, the leading object being to were to ask a wolf when he felt the cold most, he do honour to the three Magi, or, as they are com- would reply, 'At the winter solstice,”” which is at monly called, the three kings of Cologne. The Epiphany. In Italy it is thought to be one of the name Twelfth Day itself dates as far back as the coldest days. Thus, at Milan they say, “ At time of King Alfred, who established the twelve Epiphany is the greatest cold we can have.” At days after Christmas as holidays, of which the Florence there is a popular saying, “ Show me the Epiphany was the last. These twelve days were man who does not shiver on the Epiphany, and I dedicated to the twelve apostles, and in some will show you an honest man.” Lastly, on the parts of England it is still customary to light, on Rhine there is a proverb, “The three holy kings the eve of Twelfth Day, one large and twelve build a bridge or break one,” implying that either small fires, which are intended to represent our
a hard frost or a thaw comes at this season. Lord and 'the twelve apostles. In days gone by
T. F. THISELTON DYER. this festival was chiefly marked by the custom of drawing for king and queen by lots-a practice,
MANUS CHRISTI, &c. according to some, derived from the Roman Saturnalia, when at its completion children drew lots and specifics, which show the influence of the
I subjoin a few notes on some names of plants with beans to see who would be king. In Lin- religious houses in the Middle Ages on popular coloshire there is always a dance on Twelfth Day, called the “ Cake Ball," at which the old custom irreverence was intended when the names were
nomenclature. We need not suppose that any of choosing the king and queen by lot is still kept originally bestowed, though some of them rather up. In France the sovereign thus elected is called ** Le Roi de la Fève," and the importance of this jar upon our more sensitive modern religious
sentiment. The instances which I have selected ceremony is indicated by the proverbial phrase for good luck, "Il a trouvé la féve au gâteau," —he are either imperfectly explained or omitted by
Nares and Halliwell. has found the bean in the cake. Twelfth Day appears to have been observed in this country by rosewater or that of violets or cinnamon ; a sort of
Manus Christi. — “Refined sugar boild with royalty from time immemorial. In the eighth year cordial for very weak persons of the reign of Edward III. the title of King of World of Words, sixth edit., 1706); " Take as
(Phillips, New the Bean” was conferred upon one of the king's much sugar as will fill your mold and boyl it in minstrels; and we read, too, how Henry VII.
a manus christi, then pour it into your mold with much pomp kept this ceremony at Court. In 1563 Mary Queen of Scots celebrated the pastime Delight, or the Art of Preserving, Concerring and
suddenly, and clap on the lid," &c. (A Queen's of the King of the Bean at Holyrood, but with a Candying, &c., London, 1655, 12mo., p. 261). queen, Miss Strickland tells us (Lives of the Queens Halliweli merely says (Arch. and Prov. Dict.), of Scotland, vol. iv. p. 20), “instead of a king,
“Manus Christi, a kind of lozenge.” Ducange as more appropriate, in consideration of herself being a female sovereign.” Indeed, down to the (Supplement, Paris
, 1766, fol.) gives us, “ Manus time of the civil wars, this festival was observed Christi, massa quædam saccharo condita." I supwith mach enthusiasm, not only at Court, but at pose, therefore, that Manus Christi was a sort of the Universities and the Inns of Court. Formerly sugar candy, and was so called in some conventual the Lord Mayor and Aldermen and the guilds of refectory because its supposed cordial properties London attended St. Paul's Cathedral on Twelfth raised up sick people like the divine hand. Day to hear a sermon—a custom alluded to in the because it cures 'diseases of the eyes (N. Cul
Oculus Christi, wild clary or Christ's eye, early part of Queen Elizabeth's reign. Of late pepper's English Physitian, edit. 1671). years the celebration of Twelfth Day has been on
Orvale sauvage, wild clarie, double clarie, ocle the decline, and many of the customs once con- Christi (Cotgrave). This is our Salvia verbenaca. nected with it have fallen into disuse. One, however, of mediaeval origin is still observed at the
Lacrima Christi, a kind of excellent wine about Chapel Royal, St. James's Palace. On the festival Naples (Torriano, edit
. 1659). This wine is still
made on the slopes of Vesuvius, and remains in of the Epiphany, after the reading of the sentence at the offertory, “Let your light,” &c., while the organ
some request. is played, two members of Her Majesty's house
“God's Good. A blessing on a meal?
"Let the cook be thy physition, and the shambles thy hold descend from the royal pew and advance to apothecaries shop: hee that for every qualme will take the Communion rails, where they present to one a receipt, and cannot make two meales, unless Galen be